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Carpet Glossary B

Babur Rug

The babur name describes the life of a nomadic central asian horseman driven from his ancestral lands by the emergent uzbeks to found the Moghul dynasty in N India.

back stamping

Printing a trade name on the back side of carpet to identify it.

back warp

The warp which, along with the back filling, actually forms the second face of double, triple, or quadruple fabrics.

backcoating

The application of latex or adhesive to the back of a carpet to anchor the tufts, usually followed immediately by addition of a secondary backing materials such as woven jute or nonwoven polypropylene. The application of latex or adhesive to the back of a carpet to stabilize its construction (woven goods) or to anchor the tufts, usually followed immediately by lamination of a secondary backing material such as jute or non woven polypropylene (tufted goods). The application of latex or adhesive to the back of a carpet to anchor the tufts. Usually followed immediately by addition of a secondary backing material such as woven jute or nonwoven polypropylene.

backed cloth

A material with an extra warp or filling added for weight and warmth. Stain-weave and twill-weave constructions are frequently used in the design of backed cloth because they are relatively resistant to the passage of air.

backing

1. A general term for any system of yarn which interlaces on the back of a textile material. 2. A knit or woven fabric or plastic foam bonded to a face fabric. 3. A knit or woven fabric bonded to a vinyl or other plastic sheet material. 4. See carpet backing. Material (fabrics or yarns) comprising the back of the carpet as opposed to the carpet pile or face. (1) Primary back: In tufting, a woven or nonwoven fabric into which the pile yarn is inserted by the tufting needles. Usually woven or nonwoven polypropylene or woven jute for carpet and often cotton duck for scatter rugs. (2) Secondary back: Fabric laminated to the back of carpet to reinforce and increase dimensional stability. Usually woven jute or nonwoven polypropylene. Material that forms the back of the carpet, regardless of the type of construction (1) Primary Back - In a tufted carpet, the material to which surface yarns are attached. May be woven or nonwoven synthetics. (2) Secondary Back - Also called double backing. Any material (jute, woven, or nonwoven synthetics, scrim, foam or cushion) laminated to the primary back. Material that forms the back or underside of the carpet, regardless of the type of construction, and which holds the pile in place, or provides additional dimensional stability. When the carpet is woven, the backing is inserted simultaneously with the pile: but it is separate and distinct in tufted, needle punched and bonded constructions. Past backings have been made of Kraftcord, cotton duck, and jute. Today they are predominantly synthetic, woven (plain or leno) or spun with polypropylene fiber or yarn (slit-film or spun). 1. Primary back - In tufted carpet, the fabric into which surface yarns are inserted (stitched). Although primarily made of woven or non-woven synthetics (slit-film or spun polypropylene). Primary backing may be made of jute or other cellulosic material. 2. Secondary Back - Also called double backing. Any material (jute, woven, or non woven synthetics, scrim, foam, or cushion) laminated to a primary backing. Today’s secondary is made primarily of spun or woven (leno weave) polypropylene. 3. Woven Backing System - Composed of construction yarns comprised of the warp chain, stuffer warp, and shot or filler yarns, all of which are interwoven with face yarns during woven carpet manufacture. Adhesive with sizing (backcoat) is usually applied to the back of woven carpet. 4. Vinyl Back - Primarily for fusion bonded carpet, the system incorporates a layered application of hot vinyl that is heat cured, or plastic compound and fiberglass scrim for dimensional stability.

backing (primary)

In tufting, a woven or nonwoven fabric into which the pile yarn is inserted by the tufting needles. Usually woven or nonwoven polypropylene or woven jute for carpet and often cotton duct for scatter rugs.

backing (secondary)

Fabric laminated to the back of carpet to reinforce and increase dimensional stability. Usually woven jute or nonwoven polypropylene.

backing systems

1. Conventional Tufted - Carpet with a primary and secondary backing of woven or nonwoven fabrics, which are latex laminated. 2. Conventional Woven - Comprised of a warp chain, stuffer warp, and shot or filler yarns. All are interwoven with face yarns during manufacturing. Adhesive with sizing (backcoat) is usually applied to the back of woven carpet. 3. Unibond (TM) - A hot-melt resin process that adheres the primary and secondary backing of Lees Commercial Carpet. It provides superior tuft bind, edge-ravel resistance and secondary backing adhesion. 4. unitary - A single fabric backing with a high rubber content latex or hot-melt resin compound laminated to the bottom side for increased tuft bind and dimensional stability. No secondary is present. 5. Urethane - An organic compound that is applied by the carpet mill in the finishing process. In the heat curing chamber, it reacts by bubbling and creates a foam-like texture. This backing encapsulates yarn bases for extra tuft bind and provides an attached cushion See cushion-backed carpet. 6. PVC hard-backed or closed-cell PVC - Most commonly used in carpet tile or 6-foot wide goods. Due to it’s weight and stiffness, PVC give a stiff, stable backing with little cushioning but excellent tuft bind and overall dimensional stability. Closed cell vinyl add a cushion effect. 7. EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) co-polymer - An inert material that exhibits performance characteristics of PVC backed carpet. EVA demonstrates good tuft bind and dimensional stability.

backwinding

1. Rewinding yarn or fiber from one type of package to another. 2. Winding yarn as it is, is deknit.

bacteria

Any of numerous widely distributed unicellular micro-organisms exhibiting both plant and animal characteristics, and ranging from harmless and beneficial to those that cause disease. Extremely small (.4-10 microns), single-cell microscopic organisms. They are the most numerous organisms on earth and are formed everywhere, especially in soil. Because they are microscopic they are easily airborne, and they are carried in water as spores are some of the most resistant forms of life known. Bacteria reproduce at an astounding rate given proper growth conditions (food source, moisture, temperature). Most are saprophytic (feed on non-living organisms), though many are parasitic (feed on living organisms). In water damage situations, the by-product of bacterial growth is the characteristic “sour” odor associated with initial stages of damage, and later, bacteria are responsible for the musty odor associated with mildew. Most bacteria (and their odors) are killed or controlled with extreme heat and sunlight (ultraviolet), or by such chemicals as alcohol, chlorine, ammonium chlorides, and others.

bactericidal fiber

Fiber used for medical applications, socks, shoe liners, etc., in which bactericides are introduced directly into the fiber matrix as opposed to fiber simply having a bactericidal finish applied. BACTERICIDEA substance that kills bacteria, though not necessarily all their spores (e.g., chlorine bleach, quaternary ammonium chloride).

bacteriostat

A substance that limits or controls the growth of bacteria (or fungi) but does not necessarily kill them.

bad cutting

Carpet manufacturing defect in which a knife becomes dull and is no long able to cut tufts properly. The result will be a lengthwise stitch row in which tufts will have a fuzzy or “chewed” appearance.

bad mend

Carpet manufacturing defect in which the mend is substandard. It appears as a short term, high or low line. As more or less stitches in an area than in the rest of the carpet, or as loop lines. In most cases bad mends will be a lengthwise direction and will be fairly short in duration (3-10”)

balanced cloth

A term describing a woven fabric with the same size yarn and the same number of threads per inch in both the warp and the filling direction.

balanced twist

In a plied yarn or cord, an arrangement of twist which will not cause the yarn or cord to twist on itself or kink when held in an open loop.

bale

A bag, sack, square or oblong box, or package into which silk, staple fibers, or tow are compressed. The common shipping and storage package for these fibers. A compressed container of approximately 850 pounds of staple fiber that is ready to be shipped to the yarn shipper or carpet mill with spinning capability.

ball warp

Parallel threads in the form of a twistless rope wound into a large ball. When wound mechanically with quick traverse a ball warp may be made in the form of a large cylindrical package.

balling up

A defect in which loose or frayed fibers form into a ball and are the woven into the fabric.

balloon

the curved paths of running yarns about the take-up package during spinning, downtwisting, plying, or winding, or while they are being withdrawn over-end from packages under appropriate yarn winding conditions.

balloon fabric

A plain-weave cloth having the same breaking strength in each direction. This fabric is made from fine (60’s to 100’s) combed yarn woven to construction of 92 x 108 x to 116 x 128. Vulcanized balloon fabric is used for air cells in planes and barrage balloons.

band/band lines

Well defined lengthwise of widthwise conditions broader than two or three rows of yarn which create a visual color difference in the carpet.Abnormal color variation extending across the width of a carpet, usually greater than one yard in width. Bands may be caused by stops (fairly well defined bands) or uneven application during continuous dyeing (less defined at starting and ending edges).

banding, heavy tow

Non uniform distribution of filaments across towband width.

bank

Another name for a yarn creel.

bar scriber

A resilient floor covering tool used to score the surface of the resilient sheet goods and tile, for cutting seams and fitting materials around permanent objects in an carpet installation

barber pole

Yarn coloration created by plying two or more singles of different colors.

base unit

The principal power and supply source usedd in steam carpet cleaning.

baseboard

A board (trim, skirting) that covers the lower portion (base) of a wall, usually extending around the entire perimeter of a room. a board skirting the lower edge of a wall.

basic

A term describing substances having an alkaline nature. Bases may or may not be water soluble.

basic dyes

A class of positive ion carrying dyes known for their brilliant hues. Basic dyes are composed of large molecule, water soluble salts that have a direct affinity for wool and silk and can be applied to cotton with a mordant. The fastness of basic dyes on these fibers is very poor. Basic dyes are also used on basic-dyeable acrylics, modacrylics, nylons, and polyesters, on which they exhibit reasonably good fastness. See dyes.

basis weight

The weight of a unit area of fabric. Examples are ounces per square yard and grams per square centimeter.

bast fiber

A strong, woody fiber (e.g., hemp, jute, cotton, linen) obtained from the phloem (vascular tissue) of higher plants and used in making cord, mats and yarns for woven fabrics.

batik

A resist dyeing process in which portions of a fabric are coated with wax: during the dyeing process, only the uncovered areas take up dye. The process can be repeated so that several colors are used. Batik dyeing is often imitated in machine printing.

batt

Fibers in a sheet form used in the manufacture of nonwoven textile fabrics (e.g., needle punched carpet).

BCF

Bulked continuous filament. Continuous strands of synthetic fiber formed into yarn bundles of a given number of filaments and texturized to increase bulk and cover. Texturizing comprises changing the straight filaments into kinked or curled ones. The highly bulked fibers have a trilobular or triskelion cross section, which gives them greater covering power than round, cross-section fibers possess. Bulked continuous filament. continuous strands of synthetic fiber formed into yarn bundles of a given number of filaments and texturized to increase bulk and cover.

beaded velvet

Velvet with a cut out pattern or a velvet pile effect, made on a Jacquard loom. This fabric is used primarily for evening wear.

beam

1. Large horizontal cylinder or spool holding warp yarns that are ready to be fed into a weaving loom. Woven fabric may be wound onto a beam as it is made. 2. a large spool used to feed many face yarns (usually colored BCF) to a tufting or fusion bonding machine. 3. A length of timber, steel or other components placed across an opening to support a load, or for use as a decorative fixture only (non-load bearing). a cylinder of wood or metal, usually with a circular flange on each end, on which warp yarns are wound for slashing, weaving, and warp knitting. A large, horizontal cylinder, or spool, on which strands of yarn are wound prior to the manufacturer of some tufted and woven carpet. Large, horizontal cylinders or spools. the warp yarns are wound on beams located back of the line of weave. The woven fabric is wound on a beam located usually in front, just below the line of weave.

beam dyeing machine

A machine for dyeing warp yarns or fabrics that have been wound onto a special beam, the barrel of which is evenly perforated with holes. The dye liquor is forced through the yarn or fabric from inside to outside and vice versa.

beaming

The operation of winding warp yarns onto a beam usually in preparation for slashing, weaving, or warp knitting. Also called warping.

bearding

Fuzz on loop pile carpets usually resulting from poor anchorage or fiber snagging. Long fiber fuzz occurring on some cut pile fabrics, which may result in matting and pilling. Long fiber fuzz on loop pile fabrics caused by fiber snagging and inadequate anchorage. The presence of protruding fiber on the surface of loop or cut pile carpet. With loop pile, continuous filament yarns, filaments may become entangled, forming a web of fibers on the pile surface. Bearding may be caused by heavy traffic snagging fiber, and/or inadequate anchorage, i.e., inadequate latex encapsulation around, or penetration into the yarn bundle. See bundle wrap, encapsulation, cobwebbing.

beat-up 1

1. The action of the lay and reed when forcing the filling to the fell of the cloth. 2. The point in the timing cycle of the above operation. 3. The number of tufts per inch of length in a warp row of pile. Used in connection with Axminster, chenille and other carpets not woven over wires. Synonymous with wire in Wilton, Velvet, et.

beater

Equipment associated with in-plant rug cleaning and used for dry soil removal. Rugs are fed into a beater face down. Straps slap the back side while loosened soil is vacuumed simultaneously from the face. Special equipment used to remove loose dust or dirt from the carpet prior to cleaning.

beater bar

A ridge on the rotating cylindrical bar of an upright vacuum cleaner or power head attachment that agitates or beats carpet pile, vibrating and loosening soil in the process. Can be used in place of a brush agitation and is most effective when used on carpet with a pad or cushion underneath.

beck

A vessel for dyeing fabric in rope form, consisting primarily of a tank and a reel to advance the fabric. A vessel for dyeing fabric in rope form, consisting primarily of a tank and a reel to advance the fabric. A vessel used in batch dyeing a loop of fabric or carpet (with ends sewn together) in rope or open width form. The beck consists primarily of a large tank and a cylindrical reel that advances or rotates the fabric or carpet during dyeing. Dye becks may be operated at atmospheric pressure, or they may be pressurized to obtain elevated temperature (around 225 degrees F/107 degrees C). Beck dyeing is most commonly applied to cut pile tufted goods with maximum dye lots of 2000 square yards. See dyeing.

bengaline

A densely woven fabric with warp singles yarns and heavier yarns forming ribs that are spaced at intervals running in the weft direction. It may be made of rayon, acetate, nylon, silk, cotton, wool, or blends. It is often sized for increased stiffness.

bent needles

Needles in the tufting machine permanently pushed out of place causing a streak or grinning, running length wise because of off-standard tuft spacing across the width. 2. A need in the jacquard that is out of alignment with punched hole in pattern cards.

benzoyl peroxide

A bleaching agent (C14H1004) commonly used in acne medications, adult fade creams, and other cosmetics, which can progressively remove color from some fabrics. Its bleaching effect is often accelerated by moisture and/or heat. Benzoyl peroxide is a latent intruder in that it may be applied to the carpet mistakenly from the fingers of the user and may take months to begin removing carpet color

berber

A loop pile design originally comprised of natural colored, bulky wool yarns in a woven construction. Today’s berber style carpet is made primarily of bulky, loop pile, nylon, or polypropylene yarns in a tufted construction. A nomadic North African tribe called the Berbers are credited with the origin of this style.

BHT

See butylated hydroxy toluene.

binding

1. Cotton or rayon yarn running lengthwise of a woven fabric, used to bind the pile tufts firmly; often called crimp warp or binder warp. 2. A fabric strip (cloth tape) that is sewn (stapled) and/or glued along the cut edge of carpet to prevent raveling and for protection against wear. A strip sewed over a carpet edge for protection against unraveling.

binding stapler

A plier type stapler used for fastening carpet binding along a perimeter edge of carpet.

binding yarn

Cotton or rayon yarn running lengthwise of the woven fabric, used “to bind” the pile tufts firmly; often called “crimp warp” or “binder warp”.

biodegradable

Capable of being broken down into innocuous (harmless) products (water, carbon dioxide) by the action of living organisms or other biological processes. Most of today’s textile cleaning detergents are biodegradable. Has the capability of being decomposed by naturally occurring micro-organisms. The ability of a substance to be broken down by bacteria so that it can be returned to the environment without posing an environmental hazard.

biohazard

Any biological material that can cause harm to living organisms.

biological aerosols

Tiny droplets containing biological contaminants (spores, bacteria or their by-products) that become airborne through human (coughing, sneezing, talking) or mechanical (HVAC) means.

biological contaminants

unwanted agents (disease or allergy causing) that are derived from or are living organisms (including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, arthropods and mammal and bird antigens), that can be inhaled and can cause many types of health effects, including allergic reactions, respiratory disorders, hypersensitivity diseases, and infectious diseases. Also referred to as microbiologicals or microbials.

biopollutants

Organisms, or their derivatives, which are living or have lived, and which are unwanted in the earth’s air, water, or environment. Examples include: bacteria, fungi, viruses, and derivatives from mammals, anthropoids, and plants.

birdcage

Colloquial name for the end of a stair rail where the banisters are curved in a spiral to form a newel post.

black, brown lung

Respiratory diseases resulting from long term exposure to airborne particles, such as: coal dust or cotton dust.

bleach

A cleaning, sanitizing, and color removing material that functions through a chemical reaction called oxidation. Bleaches often are used with detergents, or by themselves to break chemical rather than physical bonds, as detergents do. Common bleaches used in cleaning are sodium hypochlorite (chlorine bleach), hydrogen peroxide, and sodium perborate, which converts to hydrogen peroxide when mixed with water. An oxidizing or reducing agent used to remove color.

bleeding

Removal of color from carpet or other fabrics by a liquid, usually water, and subsequent staining of areas adjacent to the wet area, or of other materials in contact with the wet area. Fabrics that bleed when wet will stain fabrics which come in contact with them. The migration or transfer of dyes from wet fabric, usually due to improper dyeing (fixing), from the use of poor dyestuffs, or from exposure to the high -pH products. Fabrics that bleed when wet may stain fabrics that come in contact with them or color may be transferred from one portion of a multicolored fabric to another.

blend

1. A yarn obtained when two or more staple fibers are combined in a textile process for producing spun yarns (e.g., at opening, carding, or drawing). 2. A fabric that contains a blended yarn, of the same fiber content, in the warp and filling. The combining of staple fibers of different physical characteristics to assure a uniform distribution of these fibers throughout the yarn.

blocking

1. The interference of a dye with the action of another dye in the same bath. 2. The stain resisting action of a transparent dye (dye blocker) on a stain-resist carpet fiber, which inhibits the fixing of a dye from staining material.

bloodborne pathogen

Harmful micro-organisms present in a blood or other potentially infectious materials, that could cause disease or death in humans. Included among these micro-organisms are hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

blooming

1. the tendency of cut-pile yarns to untwist and flare out at the tips of tufts. 2. A white deposit on the surface of anew concrete or magnesite floor. The deposit is composed of either soluble salt or magnesium chloride.3. The appearance of brightness of a dyed fabric when the fabric is viewed across the top while held at eye level.

bobbin

1. A cylindrical or slightly tapered barrel, with or without flanges, for holding slubbings, rovings, or yarns.

2. A hollow, spool type device, made of various materials, which is used to hold yarn during spinning, weaving, or sewing. .

body

The compact, solid, firm, or full feel of a fabric. Also called “hand”.

boiling point

The temperature and pressure at which a liquid changes into a vapor, usually expressed in degrees Fahrenheit at sea level (760 mm Hg, or one atmosphere). For mixture, the initial boiling point or boiling range may be given. flammable materials with low boiling points generally present special fire hazards.

boiling water shrinkage

A test designed to measure shrinkage in a cord, yarn, or high-shrinkage fiber when it is immersed in boiling water while under a tension of 0.05 grams/denier.

bonded carpet

See fusion bonding.

bonded cushion

Comes in two different forms: 1. Attached - cushion materials prepared in sheets prior to being adhered or laminated to a carpet’s back. See cushion-backed carpet. 2. Rebond - Cushion manufactured from waste urethane trim obtained from other manufacturing applications which has been shredded and rebonded to form a sheet of urethane foam material. Rubber or rebond cushion is usually urethane or latex foam, and its quality is generally determined by its density and thickness. See rebond cushion.

bonding

Implanting yarns, fiber webs, or fiber batts in cut pile or loop configuration on an adhesive coated backing. 1. Single-End Implantation - A single strand or tuft or yarn is implanted onto an adhesive coated primary backing in a perpendicular pane to the backing. 2. Multifold Implantation - A pleated or folded yarn sheet, somewhat similar to the back stitch of tufting, and is implanted onto an adhesive coated backing. 3.Implanting yarns, fiber webs or fiber batts in a cut pile or loop pile configuration on an adhesive coated backing.

bone scraper

A flat, 4 - 5 inch long, blade shaped tool that is made of bone or plastic. Used to remove or loosen encrusted dirt or material from the surface of the carpet.

bone spatula

A flat, 4 - 5 inch long, blade shaped tool with rounded ends, usually made of whale bone, plastic, or stainless steel, that is used in manipulating spotting agents.

bonnet cleaning

A minimum moisture method of interim cleaning in which, following dry soil removal (vacuuming), detergent solutions are sprayed onto the carpet pile and onto an absorbent pad or “bonnet” made of cotton, rayon, or combination thereof. Using a rotary shampooer with a drive block instead of a brush, the solution is “spin buffed” into the carpet pile with the bonnet absorbing soil from the surface of the carpet as cleaning progresses. When on side of the bonnet becomes soil saturated, it is turned over and cleaning progresses. When one side of the bonnet becomes soil saturated, it is turned over and cleaning continues. When both sides of the bonnet become soil saturated, the bonnet is exchanged for a clean one or the bonnet is rinsed in a wringer bucket before work continues. Bonnet cleaning is discouraged by most U.S. carpet manufactured due to inadequate soil extraction and potential pile distortion on cut pile fabrics.

bottom seams

While all carpet seams are located on the back or underside of the carpet, those made when the carpet is turned over or faced down are called bottom seams.

boucle

A flat, irregular surfaced fabric, woven or knitted from twisted boucle yarns made of natural or synthetic fabric, which have small loops or curls.

bow

Stretching into a curve. 1. Curvature of a textile fabric with respect to, or across, the direction of manufacture. 2. In the context of carpet installation, bowing occurs when seams or patterns are stretched out of alignment, curving away from and back toward a seam or centering point. 3. During manufacture bowing can occur during latexing when there may be more tension on the center of the carpet than on the edges.

the greatest distance, measured parallel to the selvages, between a filling yarn and a straight line drawn between the points at which this yarn meets the selvages. Bow may be expressed in inches or as a percentage of the width of the fabric at that point.

bowed pattern

Visible curved lines in the width or length of either pattern or plain goods.

bowing/skewing

A carpet condition resulting from distortion forming one or more arcs across the width of the carpet.

braided fiber/yarn

First quality fiber and yarn backed by the manufacturing company to have a special attribute or value.

braided rug

1. A textile floorcovering with no pile that is made of machine braided cords that are sewn together, usually in a round or oval configuration. 2. Reversible oval or round rugs produced from braided strips of new or used materials. 3. These are rugs made from heavy strips of new or used yarn or fabric which have been braided into thick ropes and are then sewn side-to-side in spirals, ovals, round and oblongs to create a reversible rugs.

break factor

A measure of yarn strength calculated as the product of breaking strength times indirect yarn number, or the product of breaking strength times the reciprocal of the direct yarn number.

breaking length

A measure of the breaking strength of a yarn; the calculated length of a specimen whose weight is equal to its breaking load. The breaking length is expressed kilometers is numerically equal to the breaking tenacity expressed in grams-force per tex.

breaking load

The maximum load or force applied to a specimen in a tensile test carried to rupture. It is commonly expressed in grams-force (kilograms - force), pounds, or newtons.

breaking ratio

See break factor.

breaking strength

1. The maximum resultant internal force that resists rupture in a tension test. The expression “breaking strength” is not used for compression tests, bursting test, or tear resistance test in textiles. 2. The load or force required to break or rupture a specimen in a tensile test made according to a specified standard procedure.

breaking tenacity

The tensile stress at rupture of a specimen (fiber, filament, yarn, cord, or similar structure) expressed as newtons per tex, grams-force per tex, or grams-force per denier. The breaking tenacity is calculated from the breaking load and linear density of the unstrained specimen, or obtained directly from tensile testing machines which can be suitable adjusted to indicate tenacity instead of breaking load for specimens of known linear density. Breaking tenacity expressed in grams-force per tex is numerically equal to breaking length expressed in kilometers.

breathing zone

Area of a room in which occupants breathe as they stand, sit, or lie down.

brightners

Optical whiteners or fluorescent whitening agents used in the cleaning process. Under the influence of ultraviolet light, emit a visible blue-white light. Their use in cleaning solutions can cause loss of color or fiber yellowing. See optical brightners.

broad spectrum

Implies the ability to kill a wide variety of gram negative or gram positive microorganisms.

broadloom

Any carpet material over 72 inches wide is referred to as a broadloom. The term does not define any particular quality, construction or style.

brocade

A carpet or rug in which a raised pattern or engraved effect is formed using heavy twisted yarn tufts on a group of straight fibers. Colors of the two fibers are often the same.

brocatelle

A tightly woven, elaborate fabric produced on a jacquard loom. the warp pattern stands in high relief from the background yarns, often forming “floats” as in a stain weave. This “high-relief” pattern distinguishes it from a brocade.

browning

A yellow or brownish discoloration of the carpet’s face, usually caused by impurities in cellulosic fibers, such as cotton and jute, which wick up to the face fibers on overwetting. Most often caused by: excess alkalinity in the cleaning agent used in steam cleaning; activated alkaline residue left by previous cleaning efforts; overwetting; a combination of any of these. May sometimes appear in shades other than brown or yellow depending on color of affected carpet. Browning is usually corrected with mild solutions of acetic or citric acid, or a mild solution of hydrogen peroxide (3%).

Brussels Carpet

1. A loop pile woven on a loom with a Jacquard. 2. A term sometimes used to describe a loop pile carpet woven on the Wilton Loom. 3. A loop pile carpet made on a Wilton Loom, made with colored worsted wool yarns with linen warp and weft yarns. It was first produced in Brussels, Belgium.

Brussels Pitch

252 or 256 dents per 27 inches in width.

BTU - (British Thermal Unit)

A measurement of heat energy: The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of distilled water one degree Fahrenheit, at or near the temperature of maximum water density (39 degrees F/4 degrees C.).

buckling

A carpet that does not lay flat on the floor and has ridges.

bulking

Processing yarn, usually by mechanical means, to fluff it up and give more covering with the same weight. Also known as texturing and lofting.

burling

A hand tailoring operation to remove any knots and loose end, insert missing tufts of surface yarns, and check the condition of the fabric. A repair operation on worn or damaged carpet.

buffer

1. Any substance in a solution that is capable of neutralizing both acids and bases; thereby, maintaining the original pH of the solution when either acid or alkali is added. 2. A colloquial term for a floor buffing or scrubbing machine.

buffer action

The resistance of a substance to a change in pH.

buffing

Polishing with a floor machine, floor pad, or brush.

builder

A material used to enhance the cleaning efficiency of a detergent. This is accomplished either by sequestration, i.e., holding hardness minerals in solution, by precipitation, or by ion exchange. Builders supply alkalinity, prevent suspended soils from redepositing during cleaning and emulsify oily or greasy soils. See alkaline builder.

Material added to detergent formulations to increase their effectiveness by acting as a water softener and alkaline buffer, i.e., borax, sodium tripoly phosphate.

building related illness (BRI)

A term that refers to a diagnosable illness brought on as a result of exposure to air in a building with specific contaminants or pathogens, and with a traceable etiology (unlike sick building syndrome). Symptoms of BRI include specific diseases or illnesses, including infection, fever, and clinical signs of pathology, which are identified and an airborne pathway for the stressor is recognized.

built detergent

A cleaning product that contains both surfactants and alkaline builders.

bulk density

The mass of powdered or granulated solid material per unit of volume.

bulk development

Any of various relaxation treatments to produce maximum bulk in textured or latent crimp yarns or in fabrics made therefrom. The essential conditions are heat, lubrication, movement, and the absence of tension. Bulk development may be accomplished during wet processing or may be a separate operation such as hot air tumbling, steam injection tumbling, or dry cleaning.

bulked continuous filament (BCF)

An abbreviated term used to identify yarns made of fibers that are extruded, drawn, crimped, and gathered with other continuous filament s to make BCF yarn for carpet manufacture. (see also BCF)

bulking

Processing yarn, usually by mechanical means. To fluff yarn up and give more coverage with the same weight. May be known as Texturizing and lofting.

bullnose

A colloquial name used by installers for the step return (roll-over). Originally, the term applied to an elongated step that was rounded at one or both side ends of the tread.

bundle wrap

The penetrating coat of latex adhesive on that portion of the yarn which extends below the primary backing of tufted carpet and which penetrates the bundle of fibers comprising the yarn.

burling

A hand tailoring operation to remove any knots and loose ends, insert missing tufts of surface yarns, and check the condition of the fabric. A repair operation on worn or damaged carpet is reburling. Removing from a carpet any extraneous substance such as knots, loose threads, slubs, burrs, and defects to produce acceptable quality after weaving. Filling in any omissions.

burn testing

A method used to identify fibers by observing the resulting flame (color, action, smoke), odor and ask (color, shape, hardness). Burn testing may not always be sufficiently accurate for conclusive determination for fiber content.

burning rate

The speed at which a fabric burns. It can be expressed as the amount of fabric affected per unit time, in terms of distance or area traveled by the flame, afterglow, or char.

burnish

To buff a floor finish with a fine pad before it dries, using high speed to develop a hard shine through friction and heat.

burr

1. A rough or prickly seed that becomes entangled in wool, and must be removed after shearing during the initial stages of carding. 2. An irregular, usually sharp, spur that may develop on cleaning tools, which may damage yarns or fabric if not removed prior to cleaning. A device that assists in loop formation on circular-knitting machines equipped with spring needles. A rough or prickly seed-vessel which becomes entangled in the wool.

bursting strength

1. The ability of a material to resist rupture by pressure. 2. The force required to rupture a fabric by distending it with a force applied a right angles to the plane of the fabric under specified conditions. Bursting strength is a measure widely used for knit fabrics, nonwoven fabrics, and felts where the constructions do not lend themselves to tensile test. The two basic types of bursting tests are the inflated diaphragm method and the ball-burst method.

buttering

See seam sealing. Term used when the latex and tape seaming method was popular. Refers to the placing of latex on the edge and back of the cut edge of the carpet to prevent raveling, backing separation, and to adhere to the tape. The term applies to all seaming methods except that it only refers to the application of adhesive to the edge of the carpet.

butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT)

An chemical agent (C15H240) that serves as an ultraviolet inhibitor an anti-oxidizing compound when blended in polymer solutions. It is often used when forming polypropylene fibers (slit-film or spun polypropylene yarns). BHT was removed for most synthetic baking materials in 1985 when “yellowing” of face yarns was attributed to its presence. BHT may also be found in carpet adhesives and cushion, and in some backcoating materials.

butyl cellosolve (TM)

A water soluble solvent from the glycol classification that is used frequently in preconditioning and degreasing products.

bypass motor

A wet/dry vacuum motor that employs fans and centrifugal force, and two sources of air; working on vacuum air and motor cooling air.

binding

1. Cotton or rayon yarn running lengthwise of a woven fabric, used to bind the pile tufts firmly; often called crimp warp or binder warp. 2. A fabric strip (cloth tape) that is sewn (stapled) and/or glued along the cut edge of carpet to prevent raveling and for protection against wear. A strip sewed over a carpet edge for protection against unraveling.

binding stapler

A plier type stapler used for fastening carpet binding along a perimeter edge of carpet.

binding yarn

Cotton or rayon yarn running lengthwise of the woven fabric, used “to bind” the pile tufts firmly; often called “crimp warp” or “binder warp”.

biodegradable

Capable of being broken down into innocuous (harmless) products (water, carbon dioxide) by the action of living organisms or other biological processes. Most of today’s textile cleaning detergents are biodegradable. Has the capability of being decomposed by naturally occurring micro-organisms. The ability of a substance to be broken down by bacteria so that it can be returned to the environment without posing an environmental hazard.

biohazard

Any biological material that can cause harm to living organisms.

biological aerosols

Tiny droplets containing biological contaminants (spores, bacteria or their by-products) that become airborne through human (coughing, sneezing, talking) or mechanical (HVAC) means.

biological contaminants

unwanted agents (disease or allergy causing) that are derived from or are living organisms (including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, arthropods and mammal and bird antigens), that can be inhaled and can cause many types of health effects, including allergic reactions, respiratory disorders, hypersensitivity diseases, and infectious diseases. Also referred to as microbiologicals or microbials.

biopollutants

Organisms, or their derivatives, which are living or have lived, and which are unwanted in the earth’s air, water, or environment. Examples include: bacteria, fungi, viruses, and derivatives from mammals, anthropoids, and plants.

birdcage

Colloquial name for the end of a stair rail where the banisters are curved in a spiral to form a newel post.

black, brown lung

Respiratory diseases resulting from long term exposure to airborne particles, such as: coal dust or cotton dust.

bleach

A cleaning, sanitizing, and color removing material that functions through a chemical reaction called oxidation. Bleaches often are used with detergents, or by themselves to break chemical rather than physical bonds, as detergents do. Common bleaches used in cleaning are sodium hypochlorite (chlorine bleach), hydrogen peroxide, and sodium perborate, which converts to hydrogen peroxide when mixed with water. An oxidizing or reducing agent used to remove color.

bleeding

Removal of color from carpet or other fabrics by a liquid, usually water, and subsequent staining of areas adjacent to the wet area, or of other materials in contact with the wet area. Fabrics that bleed when wet will stain fabrics which come in contact with them. The migration or transfer of dyes from wet fabric, usually due to improper dyeing (fixing), from the use of poor dyestuffs, or from exposure to the high -pH products. Fabrics that bleed when wet may stain fabrics that come in contact with them or color may be transferred from one portion of a multicolored fabric to another.

blend

1. A yarn obtained when two or more staple fibers are combined in a textile process for producing spun yarns (e.g., at opening, carding, or drawing). 2. A fabric that contains a blended yarn, of the same fiber content, in the warp and filling. The combining of staple fibers of different physical characteristics to assure a uniform distribution of these fibers throughout the yarn.

blocking

1. The interference of a dye with the action of another dye in the same bath. 2. The stain resisting action of a transparent dye (dye blocker) on a stain-resist carpet fiber, which inhibits the fixing of a dye from staining material.

bloodborne pathogen

Harmful micro-organisms present in a blood or other potentially infectious materials, that could cause disease or death in humans. Included among these micro-organisms are hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

blooming

1. the tendency of cut-pile yarns to untwist and flare out at the tips of tufts. 2. A white deposit on the surface of anew concrete or magnesite floor. The deposit is composed of either soluble salt or magnesium chloride.3. The appearance of brightness of a dyed fabric when the fabric is viewed across the top while held at eye level.

bobbin

1. A cylindrical or slightly tapered barrel, with or without flanges, for holding slubbings, rovings, or yarns.

2. A hollow, spool type device, made of various materials, which is used to hold yarn during spinning, weaving, or sewing. .

body

The compact, solid, firm, or full feel of a fabric. Also called “hand”.

boiling point

The temperature and pressure at which a liquid changes into a vapor, usually expressed in degrees Fahrenheit at sea level (760 mm Hg, or one atmosphere). For mixture, the initial boiling point or boiling range may be given. flammable materials with low boiling points generally present special fire hazards.

boiling water shrinkage

A test designed to measure shrinkage in a cord, yarn, or high-shrinkage fiber when it is immersed in boiling water while under a tension of 0.05 grams/denier.

bonded carpet

See fusion bonding.

bonded cushion

Comes in two different forms: 1. Attached - cushion materials prepared in sheets prior to being adhered or laminated to a carpet’s back. See cushion-backed carpet. 2. Rebond - Cushion manufactured from waste urethane trim obtained from other manufacturing applications which has been shredded and rebonded to form a sheet of urethane foam material. Rubber or rebond cushion is usually urethane or latex foam, and its quality is generally determined by its density and thickness. See rebond cushion.

bonding

Implanting yarns, fiber webs, or fiber batts in cut pile or loop configuration on an adhesive coated backing. 1. Single-End Implantation - A single strand or tuft or yarn is implanted onto an adhesive coated primary backing in a perpendicular pane to the backing. 2. Multifold Implantation - A pleated or folded yarn sheet, somewhat similar to the back stitch of tufting, and is implanted onto an adhesive coated backing. 3.Implanting yarns, fiber webs or fiber batts in a cut pile or loop pile configuration on an adhesive coated backing.

bone scraper

A flat, 4 - 5 inch long, blade shaped tool that is made of bone or plastic. Used to remove or loosen encrusted dirt or material from the surface of the carpet.

bone spatula

A flat, 4 - 5 inch long, blade shaped tool with rounded ends, usually made of whale bone, plastic, or stainless steel, that is used in manipulating spotting agents.

bonnet cleaning

A minimum moisture method of interim cleaning in which, following dry soil removal (vacuuming), detergent solutions are sprayed onto the carpet pile and onto an absorbent pad or “bonnet” made of cotton, rayon, or combination thereof. Using a rotary shampooer with a drive block instead of a brush, the solution is “spin buffed” into the carpet pile with the bonnet absorbing soil from the surface of the carpet as cleaning progresses. When on side of the bonnet becomes soil saturated, it is turned over and cleaning progresses. When one side of the bonnet becomes soil saturated, it is turned over and cleaning continues. When both sides of the bonnet become soil saturated, the bonnet is exchanged for a clean one or the bonnet is rinsed in a wringer bucket before work continues. Bonnet cleaning is discouraged by most U.S. carpet manufactured due to inadequate soil extraction and potential pile distortion on cut pile fabrics.

bottom seams

While all carpet seams are located on the back or underside of the carpet, those made when the carpet is turned over or faced down are called bottom seams.

boucle

A flat, irregular surfaced fabric, woven or knitted from twisted boucle yarns made of natural or synthetic fabric, which have small loops or curls.

bow

Stretching into a curve. 1. Curvature of a textile fabric with respect to, or across, the direction of manufacture. 2. In the context of carpet installation, bowing occurs when seams or patterns are stretched out of alignment, curving away from and back toward a seam or centering point. 3. During manufacture bowing can occur during latexing when there may be more tension on the center of the carpet than on the edges.

the greatest distance, measured parallel to the selvages, between a filling yarn and a straight line drawn between the points at which this yarn meets the selvages. Bow may be expressed in inches or as a percentage of the width of the fabric at that point.

bowed pattern

Visible curved lines in the width or length of either pattern or plain goods.

bowing/skewing

A carpet condition resulting from distortion forming one or more arcs across the width of the carpet.

braided fiber/yarn

First quality fiber and yarn backed by the manufacturing company to have a special attribute or value.

braided rug

1. A textile floorcovering with no pile that is made of machine braided cords that are sewn together, usually in a round or oval configuration. 2. Reversible oval or round rugs produced from braided strips of new or used materials.

break factor

A measure of yarn strength calculated as the product of breaking strength times indirect yarn number, or the product of breaking strength times the reciprocal of the direct yarn number.

breaking length

A measure of the breaking strength of a yarn; the calculated length of a specimen whose weight is equal to its breaking load. The breaking length is expressed kilometers is numerically equal to the breaking tenacity expressed in grams-force per tex.

breaking load

The maximum load or force applied to a specimen in a tensile test carried to rupture. It is commonly expressed in grams-force (kilograms - force), pounds, or newtons.

breaking ratio

See break factor.

breaking strength

1. The maximum resultant internal force that resists rupture in a tension test. The expression “breaking strength” is not used for compression tests, bursting test, or tear resistance test in textiles. 2. The load or force required to break or rupture a specimen in a tensile test made according to a specified standard procedure.

breaking tenacity

The tensile stress at rupture of a specimen (fiber, filament, yarn, cord, or similar structure) expressed as newtons per tex, grams-force per tex, or grams-force per denier. The breaking tenacity is calculated from the breaking load and linear density of the unstrained specimen, or obtained directly from tensile testing machines which can be suitable adjusted to indicate tenacity instead of breaking load for specimens of known linear density. Breaking tenacity expressed in grams-force per tex is numerically equal to breaking length expressed in kilometers.

breathing zone

Area of a room in which occupants breathe as they stand, sit, or lie down.

brighteners

Optical whiteners or fluorescent whitening agents used in the cleaning process. Under the influence of ultraviolet light, emit a visible blue-white light. Their use in cleaning solutions can cause loss of color or fiber yellowing. See optical brighteners.

broad spectrum

Implies the ability to kill a wide variety of gram negative or gram positive microorganisms.

broadloom

Any carpet material over 72 inches wide is referred to as a broadloom. The term does not define any particular quality, construction or style.

brocade

A carpet or rug in which a raised pattern or engraved effect is formed using heavy twisted yarn tufts on a group of straight fibers. Colors of the two fibers are often the same.

brocatelle

A tightly woven, elaborate fabric produced on a jacquard loom. the warp pattern stands in high relief from the background yarns, often forming “floats” as in a stain weave. This “high-relief” pattern distinguishes it from a brocade.

browning

A yellow or brownish discoloration of the carpet’s face, usually caused by impurities in cellulosic fibers, such as cotton and jute, which wick up to the face fibers on overwetting. Most often caused by: excess alkalinity in the cleaning agent used in steam cleaning; activated alkaline residue left by previous cleaning efforts; overwetting; a combination of any of these. May sometimes appear in shades other than brown or yellow depending on color of affected carpet. Browning is usually corrected with mild solutions of acetic or citric acid, or a mild solution of hydrogen peroxide (3%).

Brussels Carpet

1. A loop pile woven on a loom with a Jacquard. 2. A term sometimes used to describe a loop pile carpet woven on the Wilton Loom. 3. A loop pile carpet made on a Wilton Loom, made with colored worsted wool yarns with linen warp and weft yarns. It was first produced in Brussels, Belgium.

Brussels Pitch

252 or 256 dents per 27 inches in width.

BTU - (British Thermal Unit)

A measurement of heat energy: The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of distilled water one degree Fahrenheit, at or near the temperature of maximum water density (39 degrees F/4 degrees C.).

buckling

A carpet that does not lay flat on the floor and has ridges.

bulking

Processing yarn, usually by mechanical means, to fluff it up and give more covering with the same weight. Also known as texturing and lofting.

burling

A hand tailoring operation to remove any knots and loose end, insert missing tufts of surface yarns, and check the condition of the fabric. A repair operation on worn or damaged carpet.

buffer

1. Any substance in a solution that is capable of neutralizing both acids and bases; thereby, maintaining the original pH of the solution when either acid or alkali is added. 2. A colloquial term for a floor buffing or scrubbing machine.

buffer action

The resistance of a substance to a change in pH.

buffing

Polishing with a floor machine, floor pad, or brush.

builder

A material used to enhance the cleaning efficiency of a detergent. This is accomplished either by sequestration, i.e., holding hardness minerals in solution, by precipitation, or by ion exchange. Builders supply alkalinity, prevent suspended soils from redepositing during cleaning and emulsify oily or greasy soils. See alkaline builder.

Material added to detergent formulations to increase their effectiveness by acting as a water softener and alkaline buffer, i.e., borax, sodium tripoly phosphate.

building related illness (BRI)

A term that refers to a diagnosable illness brought on as a result of exposure to air in a building with specific contaminants or pathogens, and with a traceable etiology (unlike sick building syndrome). Symptoms of BRI include specific diseases or illnesses, including infection, fever, and clinical signs of pathology, which are identified and an airborne pathway for the stressor is recognized.

built detergent

A cleaning product that contains both surfactants and alkaline builders.

bulk density

The mass of powdered or granulated solid material per unit of volume.

bulk development

Any of various relaxation treatments to produce maximum bulk in textured or latent crimp yarns or in fabrics made there from. The essential conditions are heat, lubrication, movement, and the absence of tension. Bulk development may be accomplished during wet processing or may be a separate operation such as hot air tumbling, steam injection tumbling, or dry cleaning.

bulked continuous filament (BCF)

An abbreviated term used to identify yarns made of fibers that are extruded, drawn, crimped, and gathered with other continuous filament s to make BCF yarn for carpet manufacture. (see also BCF)

bulking

Processing yarn, usually by mechanical means. To fluff yarn up and give more coverage with the same weight. May be known as Texturizing and lofting.

bullnose

A colloquial name used by installers for the step return (roll-over). Originally, the term applied to an elongated step that was rounded at one or both side ends of the tread.

bundle wrap

The penetrating coat of latex adhesive on that portion of the yarn which extends below the primary backing of tufted carpet and which penetrates the bundle of fibers comprising the yarn.

burling

A hand tailoring operation to remove any knots and loose ends, insert missing tufts of surface yarns, and check the condition of the fabric. A repair operation on worn or damaged carpet is reburling. Removing from a carpet any extraneous substance such as knots, loose threads, slubs, burrs, and defects to produce acceptable quality after weaving. Filling in any omissions.

burn testing

A method used to identify fibers by observing the resulting flame (color, action, smoke), odor and ask (color, shape, hardness). Burn testing may not always be sufficiently accurate for conclusive determination for fiber content.

burning rate

The speed at which a fabric burns. It can be expressed as the amount of fabric affected per unit time, in terms of distance or area traveled by the flame, afterglow, or char.

burnish

To buff a floor finish with a fine pad before it dries, using high speed to develop a hard shine through friction and heat.

burr

1. A rough or prickly seed that becomes entangled in wool, and must be removed after shearing during the initial stages of carding. 2. An irregular, usually sharp, spur that may develop on cleaning tools, which may damage yarns or fabric if not removed prior to cleaning. A device that assists in loop formation on circular-knitting machines equipped with spring needles. A rough or prickly seed-vessel which becomes entangled in the wool.

bursting strength

1. The ability of a material to resist rupture by pressure. 2. The force required to rupture a fabric by distending it with a force applied a right angles to the plane of the fabric under specified conditions. Bursting strength is a measure widely used for knit fabrics, nonwoven fabrics, and felts where the constructions do not lend themselves to tensile test. The two basic types of bursting tests are the inflated diaphragm method and the ball-burst method.

buttering

See seam sealing. Term used when the latex and tape seaming method was popular. Refers to the placing of latex on the edge and back of the cut edge of the carpet to prevent raveling, backing separation, and to adhere to the tape. The term applies to all seaming methods except that it only refers to the application of adhesive to the edge of the carpet.

butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT)

An chemical agent (C15H240) that serves as an ultraviolet inhibitor an anti-oxidizing compound when blended in polymer solutions. It is often used when forming polypropylene fibers (slit-film or spun polypropylene yarns). BHT was removed for most synthetic baking materials in 1985 when “yellowing” of face yarns was attributed to its presence. BHT may also be found in carpet adhesives and cushion, and in some backcoating materials.

butyl cellusolve (TM)

A water soluble solvent from the glycol classification that is used frequently in preconditioning and degreasing products.

bypass motor

A wet/dry vacuum motor that employs fans and centrifugal force, and two sources of air; working on vacuum air and motor cooling air.

Did you know?

Carpet manufacturers recommend carpetcleaning be performed by a professional carpet cleaner every 12 to 18 months but 42% of all carpet cleaning is performed by consumers. The section of the carpetbuyershandbook.com explains all methods of carpet cleaning including steam cleaning, Host dry extraction carpet cleaning, rotary bonnet carpet cleaning, rotary shampoo carpet cleaning, and dry foam extraction carpet cleaning.

THIS ARTICLE IS PROVIDED 'AS IS' WITH NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. THE AUTHOR, THE SITE OWNER AND ITS AFFILIATES ASSUME NO LIABILITY FOR ERRORS OR OMISSIONS CONTAINED THEREIN OR FOR ANY USE OF THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS DOCUMENT. The article is for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional advice.