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Carpet Glossary C

cable twist

A construction of thread, yarn, cord, or rope in which each successive twist is in the direction opposite the preceding twist; i.e., and S/Z/S or Z/S/Z construction.

cable twister

A machine used to place an exact number of twists per inch in plied yarn.

cable yarn

A yarn made with a cable twist resulting in a strong, regular yarn. A yarn formed by twisting together two or more plied yarns.

calcium carbonate

An insoluble compound that occurs naturally in chalk, bone, shell, and limestone, that results from the reaction of sodium carbonate and hard water ions. In its crystallized form it produces marble.

calcium chloride

A highly hygroscopic compound used in an anhydrous (dry) state for testing moisture content of various surfaces. A dry sample is weighed, then placed on a surface (concrete slab) and allowed to absorb moisture for a specified time. The sample is weighed again to determine the weight of moisture absorption.

calorie

The amount of heat required at one atmosphere of pressure to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius.

calorific

The heat generating property of light, especially sunlight, which accelerates chemical degradation of fabrics or dyes. cp “actinic”

cam loom

A loom in which the shedding is performed by means of cams. A velvet loom.

cambric

Originally, a thin white linen fabric, but today the term refers to any plain woven (cotton or cotton/polyester), relatively inexpensive fabric used primarily for linings or coverings on upholstered furniture (e.g., platform covering, skirt liner, cushion cover).

Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS)

The Canadian counterpart to the U.S. OSHA, headquartered in Hamilton, Ontario (800-263-8276)

Canadian Labour Congress (CLC)

Canadian governmental agency headquartered in Ottawa, Ontario, responsible for the implementation and enforcement of labor law.

Canadian Manufactures Association (CMA)

A Canadian association representing a diverse group of industrial manufacturers, headquartered in Toronto, Ontario.

Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA)

An organization responsible for the representation of public health interests located in Ottawa, Ontario and through whom IARC publications may be obtained. (613-725-3769)

Canadian Standards Association (CSA)

Canadian association representing a diverse group of industrial manufacturers, headquartered in Toronto, Ontario.

Canutec

Canadian agency located in Ottawa, Ontario, which deals with the transport or release of dangerous goods.

cap and band

Covering a tread and its riser with two separate pieces of carpet.

cap coating

Use of nylon fiber on the top side of a primary backing in order to accept dye and make the backing approximately the color of the carpet yarn. Cap coating disguises the primary backing when the carpet “grins”, especially on stair nosings and on certain types of edge moldings.

caprolactam

A petrochemical, containing one chain of six (6) carbon atoms, which is the basic raw material for type 6 nylon. cp “adipic acid: hexamethylene diamine”

Capture ®

A dry absorbent powder (polymer based) cleaning compound produced by Milliken Chemical Corporation.

carbon dioxide

(CO2 A colorless, odorless, nonflammable, potentially hazardous gas, during photosynthesis and converted into oxygen. Elevated levels of C02 are used as an indicator of ineffective ventilation indoors. Too many people in a confined airspace can cause carbon dioxide poisoning, with symptoms of head aches and dizziness.

carbon fiber

A high tensile fiber or whisker made by heating rayon or polyacrylonitrile fibers or petroleum residues to appropriate temperatures. Fibers may be 7 to 8 microns in diameter and are more than 90% carbonized.

carbon monoxide (CO)

A colorless, odorless, poisonous gas that results from incomplete combustion of carbon. The EPA ambient air quality TLV for carbon monoxide is 35 ppm for 1 hour, and 9 ppm for an 8 hour period.

carbonizing

A chemical process for eliminating cellulosic material from wool or other animal fibers. The material is reacted with sulfuric acid or hydrogen chloride gas followed by heating. When the material is dry, the carbonized cellulose material is dust like and can be removed.

carboxyl end group

The chain terminating group found in polyamide and polyester polymers.

carcinogen

A substance or agent that can cause a growth of abnormal tissue or tumors in humans or animals. A materiel identified as an animal carcinogen does not necessarily cause cancer in humans. Examples of human carcinogens include coal tar (skin cancer), and vinyl chloride (liver cancer).

card

A machine used in the processing of staple yarns. Its functions are to separate, align (parallel) and deliver staple fibers in a sliver form and to remove impurities.. This machine incorporates large, counter rotating drums that are covered with carding fabric (many projecting wire teeth) for this important function in yarn spinning.

Short staple systems employ flat strips covered with card clothing rather than small rolls.

card clothing

The material used to cover the working surfaces of the card, i.e., cylinder and rolls or flats. The clothing consists of either wire teeth set in a foundation fabric or rubber, or narrow serrated metal flutes which are spirally arranged around the roll. The metallic wire has the appearance of a band saw blade.

card conversion efficiency

The efficiency of the carding process, expressed as a percentage obtained from the ratio of sliver output to staple input.

carded yarn

A cotton yarn that has been carded but not combed. Carded yarns contain wider range of fiber lengths and, as a result, are not as uniform or as strong as combed yarns. They are considerable cheaper and are used in medium and coarse counts.

carding

A process in the manufacture of spun yarns whereby the staple is opened, cleaned, aligned, and formed into a continuous, untwisted string called sliver.

Aligning staple fibers in a parallel configuration to produce uniform, constant density slivers for delivery to yarn spinning frames. Carding helps remove impurities and unusable (short) fibers from natural fiber stock (cotton, wool).

Carothers, Dr. Wallace

The inventor of nylon. Dr. Carothers invented nylon for E.I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Inc. in 1938. He first developed and refined type 6,6 nylon, which has been the most used nylon type in U.S. carpet manufacturing.

carpet

Designation for a soft floor covering fabric. The word carpet has been used interchangeable to describe a wall-t-to-wall installed product or a rug, which is not fastened to the floor. Today, however, it is most often used to describe installed broadloom.

Carpet and Rug Institute (CRI)

U.S. carpet manufacturers non-profit trade association located in Dalton, Georgia. (800-882-8846)

carpet backing

A primary backing through which the carpet tufts are inserted is always required for tufted carpets. The backing is usually made of woven jute or nonwoven manufactured fiber fabrics. A secondary backing made of jute or manufactured fibers, is normally added at the latex backcoating stage. Carpet backings are an important end use for nonwoven fabrics.

carpet base cutter

A cutting tool with replaceable blade width adjustment and guide that facilitates cutting carpet strips to be used as a cover base material.

carpet comb

A carpet finishing tool made of a block of stubby, flexible plastic teeth, which is particularly effective in finishing (grooming) velvet plush pile designs.

A tool similar to a nap brush, except that instead of bristles, this tool has flexible spikes placed very close together, used for setting the nap on plushes or cut piles. (See Photo)

carpet cushion (carpet padding)

A term used to describe any kind of material placed under carpet to provide added support for the pile structure. Not only does carpet cushion (carpet padding) provide a softer feel underfoot, it provides added acoustical and thermal benefits and longer wear life for the carpet. In some cases the carpet cushion (carpet padding) is attached to the carpet when it is manufactured. Also referred to as lining, padding, or underlay. carpet cushion (carpet padding) is the preferred term.

carpet cutter

1. conventional back cutter - A hand cutting tool used for cutting secondary backs other than foam or cushion materials. It can be used from the face or back and is normally used with straight edge and chalk line. 2. cushion back cutter - A hand cutting tool used to cut cushion or foam backed carpet, working from the face of the carpet using a straight edge or following the rows on a level loop construction. The blade angle allows the cutter to slice through the foam and not tear adhered backing materials. 3. loop pile cutter - A hand tool used for cutting all straight row tufted woven loop fabrics. It is inserted between the rows and pushed straight forward. 4. machine cutter - An electrically driven tool with a circular blade that is used for cutting carpet primarily in warehouses or workrooms.

Carpet roller

A steel roller unit with long “T” handle, used to remove air pockets and bubbles and to assure contact between carpet and adhesive during direct glue or double glue carpet installations. Unlike heavier resilient floor rollers, the carpet roller only weights from 28 to 45 pounds.

carpet squares/tiles

Loose laid, self adhesive backed, or direct glued tiles of carpet, made from a tufted or bonded construction with a vinyl backing. Can be loose or self-adhesive backed

carpet trimmer

1. Conventional trimmer - A hand operated, dual blade trimming tool that makes a 1/2 ² over net cut at walls with carpet installed over cushion and tackless. Most are adjustable in both height and thickness. If tackless is properly spaced from the wall when installed, the blade guide can be used to tuck the carpet into the tackless channel gully as well. 2. cushion back trimmer - A hand tool used in making net cuts at the wall with carpet or resilient flooring to be cemented directly to the floor. Most have the adaptability of using different blades for cutting various types of floor covering materials. 3. wall trimmer - A single or double bladed hand tool used to cut excess carpet at the wall.

carpet tucker

1. conventional tucker - A wide spring steel paddle with wooden handle used for pushing carpet into the gully behind the tackless strip. 2. pogo tucker - A flat bladed (stair tool like) tucker with a weighted steel handle. When the weighted handle is pushed downward, inertia of motion drives the blade into the carpet, and the carpet is forced into the gully. The spring then returns the handle to its original position for the next tuck.

carpet underlay

A separate fabric which is used to provide cushioning for carpet. Carpet underlays are made of hair and jute, sponge rubber, bonded urethane, or foamed urethane.

carpet wool

Low, coarse wool, obtained from unimproved sheep and used in the manufacture of carpet. There is very little produced in the U.S.

carrier

1. A product added to a dye bath to promote the dyeing of hydrophobic man-made fibers and characterized by affinity for, and ability to swell, the fiber. 2. A person in apparent good health who carries a pathogenic microorganism (germ). 3. A moving holder for a package of yarn used on a braiding machine. 4. A term used to describe the tube or bobbin on which yarn is wound.

carrierless dyeing variants

Polymers that have been modified to increase their dye ability. Fibers and fabrics made from these polymers can be dyed at the boil without the use of carrier.

cast coating

A method by which resinous materials such as vinyl are coated onto a fabric and cured by heated casting drums.

castile

Originally, this referred to soap made from olive oil in Castile, Spain. Now it refers to any mild soap made from vegetable oils.

catalyst

1. A chemical that accelerates a reaction. The catalyst is not part of the reaction but increases the rate at which it takes place. 2. A substance that initiates a chemical reaction and allows it to continue under less than favorable conditions. An agent that provokes significant change.

caterpillar

A large slub formed in a combination or plied yarn as a result of one of the ends breaking and sliding or skinning back along the other yarn.

cationic dyeable

Nylon polymer that has been modified chemically to make the fiber receptive to cationic (basic) dye. Cationic dyeable yarns are used in conjunction with acid dyeable yarns to create multicolor graphic patterns in piece dyeing.

cationic dyeable variants

Polymers modified chemically to make them receptive to cationic dyes.

cationic surfactant

A surface active agent in which detergency and other properties depend in part on the positively charged ion of the molecule. Cationic surfactants are marginally cleaners; but they have other properties that allow them to perform effectively as disinfectants, antimicrobials, antistatic compounds, etc. The most common cationic surfactants are known as quaternary ammonium chloride compounds, such as alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride. These are widely used as disinfecting and sanitizing products

caulk

An elastic compound made of rubber, silicone, asphalt, or other compounds designed to fill in cracks or openings around doors, windows, siding, etc.

caustic

The property of a chemical (usually a base) that enables it to burn, corrode, dissolve, or eat away other substances. When the term caustic is used alone, it usually refers to sodium hydroxide, which is used in manufacturing hard soap. It also refers to caustic potash (potassium hydroxide), which is used in manufacturing soft soap.

caustic soda

See sodium hydroxide. The. common name for sodium hydroxide.

cavitation

The formation of partial vacuums in a fluid, caused by high frequency sound waves.

ceiling plenum

The space below the flooring and above the suspended ceiling that accumulates the mechanical and electrical equipment that is used as part of the air conveyance system. This space is kept under negative pressure.

cell

The smallest structural part of living matter capable of functioning as an independent unit.

cellulose

1. A carbohydrate which is the chief component of the cell walls of plants. Cellulose is found in wood and in cotton, linen, jute, hemp, and all of the base, leaf, and stem fibers. It is a basic raw material in the manufacture of rayon, acetate, and triacetate fibers. 2. A polysaccharide of flucose units that is the basic building block of plant cells (cp cotton; jute). Also used as a basic raw material in the manufacture of rayon and acetate.

cellulose acetate

See acetate fiber.

cellulosic

Fibers that are related to or made from cellulose. Examples are: cotton (cellulose), rayon (regenerated cellulose), acetate (cellulose acetate), and traicetate (cellulose triacetate).

Celsius (c or C)

An international thermometric scale (cp centigrade).

cement

A powder of alumina, silica, lime, iron oxide, and magnesia burned together in a kiln, and finely pulverized and used as an ingredient of mortar and concrete.

Center for Disease Control (CDC)

A federal agency that monitors communicable diseases and specializes in the medical aspects of IAQ.

centigrade (c or C)

A scale for measuring temperature. On the centigrade scale, water boils at 100 degrees and freezes at 0 degrees (cp Fahrenheit). Centigrade is converted to Fahrenheit by multiplying by 9, dividing by 5, and adding 32.

centrifuge

A machine that employs centrifugal force to remove excess liquid from fabrics. In general, centrigues are also used to separate materials of different densities.

ceramic tile

Clay tile with an impervious, usually glazed or glossy, layer on its surface.

ceramic tile cutter

A mechanical cutter with a flat metal bed covered with sponge rubber pads. The cutter has a cross bar that has a cutting handle with either solid or multi-wheel cutters to score the ceramic tile. After being scored by the wheel, the ceramic tile is broken along the scored line using pressure from the cutting handle. tile cutters score diagonally or straight and can very in size depending on the size tile being cut.

CFM

See cubic feet per minute.

CFU

See Colony Forming Units

Chain

1. The binder warp yarn that works over and under the filling shots of the carpet. 2. Axminster loom refers to the endless chain that carries the tube frames. 3. Dobby loom refers to the endless chain of pattern selector bars.

chain binders

1. Yarns running in the warp direction on the back of a woven carpet which hold construction yarns together. 2. Yarns running warpwise (lengthwise) in the back of the carpet. As the name implies, they bind all construction yarns together. The chain binder runs alternately over and under the weft binding and filling yarns, thereby pulling the pile yarn down and the stuffer yarns up for a tightly woven construction.

chain dyeing

A method of dyeing yarns and fabrics of low tensile strength by tying them end-to-end and running them through the dye bath in a continuous process.

chain

The binder warp yarn that works over and under the filling shots of the carpet.

chalk line

a marking device made of cotton, polyester or nylon line wound within a metal or plastic case filled with chalk. When extended and snapped, the powdered chalk is released from the line onto the surface being for straight cutting.

chalkiness

1. A dull, whitened appearance sometimes associated with certain extra dull colors. 2. A fillingwise fabric defect observed as bands varying in luster or sheen.

chameleon

A variable multicolored effect achieved by using warp yarns of one color and two filling yarns of different colors in each shed. It is sometimes used in taffeta, faille, or poplin made from silk or manufactured filament yarns.

change in length on untwisting

The increase or decrease in length measured when a specimen is untwisted. The change is expressed as the percentage extension or contraction of the nominal gauge length of the specimen, i.e., specimen length prior to untwisting.

char length

In flammability testing, the distance from the edge of the sample exposed to the flame to the upper edge of the charred or void area.

checking

A pattern of hairline cracks in furniture finish caused by swelling of the wood when exposed to excess moisture or humidity.

chelating agent

An organic sequestering agent, used primarily in laundry products, that inactivates water hardness minerals, such as calcium and magnesium, and reduces the adverse effects (yellow discolorations) of dissolved metals such as iron and manganese.

Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)

A Columbus, Ohio organization that indexes information published in “Chemical Abstracts” by the American Chemical Society, and provides index guides by which information about particular substances may be located in Abstracts when needed.

chemical cartridge respirator

A respirator that uses a chemical cartridge to purify inhaled air of certain gases and vapors. This type respirator is effective for concentrations no more than ten times the TLV of the contaminant, if the contaminant has warning properties (odor or irritation) below the TLV.

chemical finishing

Processes in which additives are applied to change the aesthetic and functional properties of a material. Examples are: The applications of antioxidants, flame retardants, wetting agents, and stain and water repellents.

Chemtrec

Chemical Transportation Emergency Center . A national center established by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA), Washington, D.C. in 1970, to relay pertinent emergency information concerning specific chemicals on request. Chemtrec has a 24 hour, toll free telephone number (800-424-9300), that is intended primarily for use by those who respond to chemical transportation’s emergencies.

chenille

1. A pile fabric made by sewing rows of surface yarns in a fur or caterpillar form through strong, plain woven cotton backing. In upholstery fabrics, pile yarns are usually cut, rather than loop, and may be made of cotton, wool, rayon, or silk. Cotton chenille bedspreads are reported to be forerunner of the tufted carpet industry. 2.A pile fabric woven by the insertion of a prepared weft row of surface yarn tufts in a fur or caterpillar form through very fine but strong cotton catcher warp yarns, and over a heavy woolen backing yarn. A term also used to denote machine tufted bedspreads ( a technical misnomer).

Derived from the French word for caterpillar, is a custom made cut pile fabric woven on two looms. The first loom produces a fur on chenille blanker which is cut and shaped into V-strips. These fur or chenille strips which form the pile surface are woven into a heavy woolen backing and held firmly by strong catcher threads. It is woven in any yarn shape, size, design, and seamless to 30 feet wide.

chevron brush

A broad term applied to prints in zigzag stripes or to herringbone weaves.

chintz

plain woven, usually printed, cotton, polyester, rayon, or blended fabric treated with durable or non-durable resins, and glazed or set with hot rollers or heat curing. Also known as polished cotton, chintz has a high gloss appearance. The non-durable glaze is usually made of wax and starch compounds set with hot rollers; while the durable glaze consists of urea ormelamine resins that are applied and heat cured. The glazed finish may be dulled with abrasive use, body oils or aggressive cleaning.

chip

1. The form of polymer feedstock used in fiber production. 2. The feedstock for a pulp digestion. 3. A defect in a nonwoven fabric.

chlorinated solvent

An organic, non-polar dry solvent that contains chlorine atoms (e.g., perchloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane).

chlorine bleach

Strong oxidizing agents that have one or more chlorine atoms in their molecular makeup. Liquid chlorine bleach products for home use (e.g., Clorox TM, Purex TM are normally 5.25% solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaC10); 6% in Canada (havexTM). Chlorine bleach also may be found in bathroom cleansers, dish washing compounds, and powdered or liquid laundry detergents (potassium or sodium dichloroisocyanurate). Chlorine bleach should not be used with silk, wool, chlorine sensitive dyes and on certain stains, such as rust, which it can set. In an 1/2% solution (mixed 1:9 or 1:4), chlorine bleach Is an effective germicide. The addition of ammonia or acids to chlorine bleach liberates toxic chlorine gas.

chlorine retention

A characteristic of several resins and textile finishes whereby they retain some of the chlorine from bleach. On heating of the goods, the chlorine forms hydrochloric acid, causing tendering of the cloth. This is especially true of certain wrinkle resistant finishes for cotton and rayon.

chromaticity

The quality of color expressed as a function of wavelength and purity.

chromatography

The generic name of a group of processes for separating and analyzing mixtures of chemical compounds. The separation depends on the redistribution of molecules of the mixture between phases, one of which is thin, often reaching molecular dimensions. For this reason, molecular size and shape are important in the separation, and extremely subtle separation are possible.

chronic exposure

Long term contact with a substance, usually lasting from several weeks to a lifetime.

chronic toxicity

Adverse (chronic) effects resulting from repeated doses of, or prolonged exposure to, a substance over a relatively prolonged period, with resulting long term, poisonous human health effects. Ordinarily, chronic toxicity is used to describe effects in experimental animals.

circling

Circular streaks left on the carpet after a rotary shampooing because of improper cleaning technique by the operator. Rings or spots resulting from uneven wetting, or from “wicking” of moisture into home decor fabrics (upholstery, draperies) from damp carpet.

circuit breakers

A device designed to open automatically when subjected to an overload of electrical current. It’s objective is to prevent damage to electrically operated devices, injury to humans, or structural fires.

citric acid

An organic acid used in cleaning, primarily to neutralize alkalinity, and prevent or correct browning, yellowing or general discolorations resulting from cellulose degradation, or chemical reaction discolorations.

cladosporium

A fungus commonly found in the outdoor environment, especially in soil.

Clean Air Act

Federal law enacted to regulate/reduce air pollution; administered by the EPA.

Clean Water Act

Federal law enacted to regulate/reduce water pollution; administered by the EPA.

cleanability

The ability of a textile fabric to release soil and stains without damage to the fiber, color, or backings when cleaned using appropriate processes.

cleanability codes

A voluntary labeling system adopted by furniture manufacturers to assist consumers in determining how to clean their upholstered furniture. The codes are: W - use water-based cleaner, S - use dry solvent based cleaner, W-S - use either water or dry solvent based cleaners, X - vacuum only (with light brushing).

cleaning

The traditional activity of removing contaminants, pollutants and undesired substances from an environment or surface to reduce damage or harm to human health or valuable materials. Cleaning is the process of locating, identifying, containing, removing, and properly disposing of unwanted substances from an environment or material. Cleaning may be accomplished on three levels: 1. Housekeeping - Routine daily and weekly activities to keep things in their proper place. it relies heavily on human organizational skills and labor. It includes such periodic tasks as putting things away, emptying trash, washing dishes and cloths, vacuuming carpet, dusting furniture, and mopping floors. 2. Maintenance - A routine cleaning in that it must be performed regularly. Unlike housekeeping, it relies on mechanical and chemical intervention such as: door mats, cleaning machines, air filters, waxes, solvents (detergents), and disinfectants. Maintenance helps to maintain the environment in a more sanitary state. 3. Restoration - The activity of deep cleaning. It is accomplished periodically as needed. Restoration is required when the environment has gotten out of control and must be returned to a sanitary or higher state of order. Restoration is required when the environment has gotten out of control and must be returned to a sanitary or higher state of order. Restoration is not a normal cleaning process and is typically performed by persons especially trained or skilled in the process.

cleaning agent

Detergent or emulsifying agent.

cleaning head

Used in steam carpet cleaning, sometimes called a scrub wand. A lightweight tool used in a back and forth motion, spraying on the backstroke, vacuuming on the forward stroke. Contains spray nozzles and vacuum slot solution control valve.

cleaning methods

1. Dry Foam - A detergent solution containing only a small amount of water is mechanically worked into the surface of the carpet and the loose soil is removed by a vacuum. 2. Hand Absorption - A detergent solution is generated into a foam which is worked into the pile of the carpet by sponges. The loose soil is removed by absorption into clan sponges. The application of the foam and removal is done by hand. 3. Hot Water Extraction - This method is sometimes called steam cleaning. A solution is forced into the pile at high pressure. The loose soil and a large amount of the solution area is immediately vacuumed out. 4. Powder - Absorbent granules containing a dry cleaning fluid and other cleaning agents are sprinkled over the surface of the carpet. This is worked into the carpet pile. Vacuuming removes the granules and attached soil. 5. Rotary Brush - A detergent solution is worked into the pile of the carpet by the bristles of the brush. Some machines are equipped with vacuums to remove the loose soil and solution. This method of cleaning is no better than the operator.

cleanser

A powdered or liquid cleaning product generally containing abrasives, a surfactant and frequently a bleach.

closed drying system

A water damage restoration situation in which a structure is dried with a combination of carpet dryers and mechanical dehumidification equipment. It implies that all of the structure’s portals are closed, due to high outside humidity (60 - 70 % RH plus). Under these circumstances, opening and ventilation the structure would simply exchange humid inside air for humid outside air, thus considerably prolonging drying time and running the risk of micro-organisms on the interior organic materials, as well as increased physical damage to hygroscopic structure and contents components.

clouding

Sometimes caused by overwetting in the steam carpet cleaning process. Residue from previous cleanings which is not removed and left too wet will wick up the carpet fiber and cause a cloudy appearance on the surface. Customer complaint may state that carpet looked dirty after it dried.

clumps

In nonwoven fabrics, an irregularly shaped grouping of fibers caused by insufficient fiber separation.

CMA

Chemical Manufacturers Association

coagulation

A joining together of particles in waste water which settle out. Lime, alum, and iron salts induce the clumping of particles.

coarse thread

A yarn larger in diameter than other yarns being used in the fabric.

coated fabric

A fabric to which a substance such as lacquer, plastic, resin, rubber, or varnish has been applied in firmly adhering layers to provide certain properties, such as water impermeability.

cobwebbing

An extreme form of hairiness in which fibers are entangled to form aggregates or “webs” that remain attached to the use surface (pile) or a fabric. Cobwebbing may be found on the surface of loop pile carpet, such as a synthetic berber, made of BCF yarn. Cobwebbing results from fibers slipping from yarns with inadequate latex penetration (bundle wrap), when pulled upon by traffic and carpet care.

COC

Cleveland Open Cup Test; a method for establishing a chemical’s flashpoint.

cocci

A spherically shaped bacteria.

cockled yarn

Spun yarn in which some fibers do not lie parallel to the other fibers but instead are curled and kinked, forming a rough and uneven surface of the yarn. The general cause is fiber overcut to the extent that the drafting rolls catch and hold both ends of the fiber at the same time while attempting to draft, resulting in slippage or breakage.

cockling

A crimpiness or pucker in yarn or fabric usually caused by lack of uniform quality in the raw material used, improper tension on yarn in weaving, or weaving together yarns of different numbers.

cocklink

A curliness or crimpiness appearing in the cut face pile as a result of a yarn condition.

Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)

A collection of the regulations that have been promulgated under U.S. federal law, which includes OSHA regulations.

cohesion

The force that holds fibers together during yarn manufacturing or processing. It is usually a function of lubricant (type and amount) and fiber crimp.

coil yarn

See textured yarns.

coir

Fiber retrieved from husk of coconut; used in pile layer of track-off mats.

coliform organism

Micro-organism found in the intestinal tract of humans and animals. Their presence in water indicates fecal pollution and potential dangerous bacterial disease causing organisms.

colloidal alumina

The basic ingredient for several anti-static treatments (also soil retardants).

colloidal silica

A basic ingredient for particle soil retardants.

colony

A visible growth of micro-organisms on a culture medium.

colony forming units

A descriptive acronym used in assessing the growth of micro-organisms on fabrics or surfaces. DFU/M3 is an abbreviation for colony forming units per cubic meter of air, or the number of micro-organisms that were able to grow on the collection media found in the sampled air volume (m3).

color abrasion

Color changes in localized areas of a garment resulting from differential wear.

color breakdown

A situation in which incorrect dyeing methods or defective dyes cause a color change over a period of time.

color matching

The proper co-ordination of color hues and shade dept. Critical to color matching are: the light under which colors are compared; the surface texture of the object being matched (cut pile appears darker than loop pile), and the surface luster of the object being matched (high luster looks lighter than low luster).

color remover

Reducing agents that sufficiently reactive to remove color or stains from textile fabrics without destroying textiles themselves.

color stripper

A chemical used to remove some or all of the dyestuffs from a fiber, yarn, or fabric so that dyeing defect can be corrected, a shade lightened, or another color applied.

color, primary and complementary

Primary colors are the principal colors that make up “white” light. Complementary colors are colors that when combined, produce a neutral color or whitish gray as when orange and blue are combined or mixed. (Primary colors: red, blue, and yellow)

color, uneven

Uneven color application during dyeing of carpet or yarn.

colorfastness

Resistance to fading, i.e., the property of a dye to retain its color when the dyed (or printed) textile material is exposed to conditions or agents such as light, perspiration, atmospheric gases, or washing that can remove or destroy the color. A dye may be reasonably fast to one agent and only moderately fast to another. Degree of fastness of color is tested by standard procedures. Textile materials often must meet certain fastness specification for a particular use. The ability of a fiber or fabric containing dyestuffs or pigment to resist breakdown according to manufacturers: and government test standards, under ultraviolet light exposure, wet crocking, dry crocking, cleaning, or atmospheric contaminants.

colorimeter

1. A device that speci fies color by measuring the intensities of the three primary colors that compose the color under study. 2. An instrument for measuring the concentration of a known substance in solution by comparing the liquid’s color with standard color.

colorimetry

Any technique for evaluating a given color in terms of standard colors.

colour index (CI)

A listing of dyes and chemical structures published by the Society of Dryer and Colourist. Each structure is assigned a name according to chemical composition. Each dye is assigned a number according to its class and shade. A correlating structure number is given when available.

comb

An open top reed.

combed sliver

A continuous band of untwisted fiber, relatively free of short fibers and trash, produced by combing card sliver.

comber board

The part of the Brussels Card Jacquard mechanism that raises all face yarns simultaneously for the insertion of the bottom filling shot. 2. The part of the Fine Index Jacquard through which the lingoes are threaded to hold them in place.

comber yarn

A yarn produced from combed sliver.

combination

A term which refers to yarns or fabrics (1) a combination yarn is composed of two or more yarns having the same or different fibers or twists, e.g., one yarn may have a high twist; the other, little or no twist; (2) a combination fabric is one which uses the above yarns.

combination fabric

A combination fabric use a combination yarn. (A combination yarn is produced with two or more yarns having the same or different fibers or twist: e.g., one yarn may have a high twist and one may have little or no twist.)

combination yarn

(yarn/fabric) A term which refers to yarns. A combination yarn is produced with two or more yarns having the same or different fibers or twist: e.g., one yarn may have a high twist: the other, little or no twist.

combing

A step subsequent to carding in cotton and worsted system processing which straightens the fibers and extracts neps, foreign matter, and short fibers. Combing produces a stronger, more even, more compact, finer, smoother yarn.

combustible

Able to catch fire and burn.

combustible liquid

Any liquid having a flash point at or above 100 degrees F (37.8 degrees C), cut below 200 degrees F (93.3 degrees C), except any mixture having components with flash points of 200 degrees F (93.3 degrees C) or higher, the total volume of which makes up 99% or more of the total volume of the mixture.

combustion

Burning or rapid oxidation accompanied by a release of energy

commercial (color)

Matching colors of fabrics (e.g., side seamed carpet) within acceptable tolerances, generally within 5% plus or minus of a manufacturer or dealer sample, or with a color variation that is barely detectable to the naked eye (usually 3% for the untrained eye). See off color.

commercial allowance

The commercial moisture regain plus a specific allowance for finish used in calculating the commercial or legal weight of a fiber shipment.

commercial matching

Matching of colors within acceptable tolerances, or with a color variation that is barely detectable to the naked eye.

commercial moisture regain

An arbitary value adopted as the moisture regain to be used in calculating the commercial or legal weight of a fiber shipment.

commercial weight

1. In natural fibers, the dry weight of fibers or yarns plus the commercial moisture regain. 2. In manufactured fibers, the dry weight of staple spun yarns or filament yarns after scouring by prescribed methods, plus the commercial moisture regain.

commingling

See air entangling.

commodity yarn

Yarn that is not warranted by the manufacturer to have special attributes or value. It is usually less expensive than branded yarn.

compact spinning process

A term referring to a spinning process carried out using any one of the several small spinning machines of compact design offered by equipment vendors as packaged units in which spinning and subsequent processing (drawing, crimping, cutting, etc.) are linked.

compacted yarns

Air jet interlaced yarns. Since the entanglement serves only a substitute for twist, the degree of interlace or tangle is not as great as in air jet bulked yarns.

compaction

See intermingling.

compactor

A machine developed by Fabric Research laboratories which is used to compact fabrics or to produce warp stretch fabrics by means of forced crimp and/or shrinkage of the warp yarn.

compliance

The ability of a fiber to yield under stress; the ratio of the change in strain to the change in stress that produces it; the reciprocal of the textile modulus.

composite fibers

Fibers composed of two or more polymer types in a sheath core or side-by-side (bilateral) relation.

compound

A combination of substances, which results in a reaction that forms a new substance that differs from either of its components.

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA)

A federal act requiring that the U.S. Coast Guard National Response Center be notified in the event of a hazardous substance release. The act also provides for a fund (superfund) to be used for cleaning up abandoned hazardous waste disposal sites.

compressed gas

1. Any gas or mixture of gases having, in any container, an absolute pressure exceeding 40 psi at 70 degrees F (21.1 degrees C). 2. A gas or mixture of gases having, in a container, an absolute pressure exceeding 104 psi at 130 degrees F (54.4 degrees C), regardless of its pressure at 70 degrees F (21.1 degrees C). 3. A liquid having a vapor pressure exceeding 40 psi at 100 degrees F (37.8 degrees C) as determined by ASTM D 323-72.

compressed seam technique

An carpet installation technique used to form a durable and inconspicuous seam when two pieces of carpet are being glued to a subfloor.

compressibility

refers to the ease of reducing the bulk of fabric, carpet, batting, or other material. May be high or low, soft, or hard.

concentrate

The undiluted form of a product that is normally mixed with water.

concentration

The relative amount of a substance when combined or mixed with other substances.

condensation

1.A deposit of moisture droplets from humid air on surfaces that are cooler than that air. Condensation will form when warm, moist air contacts a cooler surface causing the air to be reduced to the dew point temperature.2. A polymerization process yielding a product in which the repeating unit has fewer atoms than the monomer(s).

condition

To bring a textile sample or specimen to moisture equilibrium with a specified atmosphere.

conditioned air

Air that has been heated, cooled, or dehumidified to maintain an interior space within the human comfort zone.

conditioning

A process of allowing textile materials (staple, tow, yarn, and fabrics) to reach hygroscopic equilibrium with the surrounding atmosphere. Materials may be conditioned in a standard atmosphere (65%RH, 70 degree F) for testing purposes or in arbitrary conditions existing in manufacturing or processing areas. Bringing a textile sample to moisture equilibrium within a specified atmosphere, prior to performing certain test.

conductive floors

Specially made resilient tile that is designed to drain off or prevent static electricity. This flooring is used frequently in computer rooms.

cone

A conical package of yarn, usually wound on a disposable paper core.

confined space

Any area that has: limited openings for entry and exit; where escape would be difficult in an emergency; which lacks ventilation; which contains known or potential hazards, and which is not intended nor designed for continuous human occupancy.

coning

The transfer of yarn from skeins or bobbins or other types of packages to cones.

conjugate fiber

A two component fiber with specific ability to crimp on hot or hot/wet treatment because of differential shrinkage.

conjugate yarn

A yarn made from conjugate filaments

constant air volume

An air conveyance system that provides a constant airflow while varying the temperature to meet heating and cooling needs.

construction

1. The method by which fabric (e.g., tufted, woven, bonded carpet or upholstery) is manufactured. 2. The sum of a fabric’s components, including fiber type, total density, method of dyeing, etc. 3. Carpet construction is defined by stating the manufacturing method (tufted, woven, etc.), and the final arrangement of materials achieved by following specifications. The method by which the carpet is made; i.e., loom type, pile rows per inch, pitch, wire height, shots, face frames or harnesses, draw, yarn count, face yarn weight, stuffers, kind and quantity of backsize, and total carpet weight.

contaminant

Any physical, chemical, biological, or radioactive substance that can have an adverse effect on air, water, soil, or any interior or exterior surface.

continuous dyeing

The process of dyeing carpet on a production line, rather than piece dyeing separate lots. Most often done on continuous dyeing equipment which flows on dyestuffs, as distinguished from submerging carpet in separate dye becks.

continuous filament

1. Continuous strand of synthetic fiber extruded in yarn form, without the need for spinning which all natural fibers require. 2. Continuous strand of synthetic fiber extruded, drawn, crimped, and bundled with other continuous filament fibers to make yarn directly from the extruder, without the need for spinning, as is required by all natural (or synthetic staple) fibers. Any synthetic fiber may be made in a continuous filament form. Silk is the only natural fiber that may be loosely termed continuous filament.

continuous polymerization

In polymer manufacture, linkage of the various stages of polymerization so that materials flow without interruption from the addition of raw materials to delivery of the finished polymer from the system. Extrusion as film, chip, or fiber may be linked to a continuous polymerization line. Because there is no break in the process while the transition from low molecular weight to high occurs, multiple stage reaction vessels may be required and accurate process control is critical.

convection current

The upward movement of air caused by thermal expansion.

converted fabric

A finished fabric as distinguished from greige fabric.

converter

An individual or organization which buys greige fabrics and sells them as a finished product to cutters, wholesalers, retailers, and others. The converter arranges for the finishing of the fabric, namely bleaching, mercerizing, dyeing, printing, etc., to the buyers specifications.

convolution

1. An irregular spiral or twisted condition characteristic of mature cotton fiber. It is visible under a microscope. The finer fibers are usually more twisted than the coarser fibers. 2. Coil and curl in certain types of textured yarns which provide bulkiness to the yarn.

cookie cutter

A circular bladed tool used to remove or replace damaged or stained carpet, up to three inches in diameter.

cop

1. A headless tube upon which yarn or thread is wound. 2. Thread or yarn wound into the shape of hollow cylinder with tapered ends. 3. Filling yarn wound upon a tapered tube.

cord

1. The product formed by twisting together two or more plied yarns. 2. A rib on the surface of a fabric (e.g., corduroy and whipcord).

corded selvage

See loopy selvage.

corduroy

1. A filling pile fabric with ridges of pile (cords) running lengthwise parallel to the selvage. 2. A raised, cut pile formed with one warp and two filling rows, that form ribs that run lengthwise. One of the two filling rows interweaves with the warp chain to form a base or ground fabric, while the other attaches with some warp yarns but floats over three or four others. After weaving, the float yarns are cut, and the pile is brushed to form the velvet like cords. Older corduroys were made of cotton, but today, they may be made of cotton, polyester, acrylics, or blends.

core spinning

The process of making a core spun yarn. It consists of feeding the core yarn (an elastomeric filament yarn, a regular filament yarn, a textured yarn, or a previously spun yarn) into the front delivery roll of the spinning frame and of covering the core yarn with a sheath of fibers during the spinning frame and of covering the core yarn with a sheath of fibers during the spinning operation.

core spun yarn

A yarn made by twisting fibers around a filament or a previously spun yarn, concealing the core. Core yarns are used in sewing thread, blankets, and socks and to obtain novelty effects in fabrics.

corkscrew twist

A place in yarn or cord where uneven twist gives a corkscrew-like appearance.

corn rowing

1. A term used to describe matting that occurs in plushes and shags where some of the yarns that do mat form rows, usually across the width of the traffic lanes. These rows are caused when groups of tufts lie down horizontally against the primary backing, which adjacent tufts overlap, causing an appearance similar to rows of corn. 2. The progressive tangling and matting of alternating rows of tufts in entry and traffic areas, when subjected to the rotary motion of traffic and vacuuming (sometimes associated with shags and low-density saxonys). Corn

corrosion

Action or effect of eating away gradually, such as through oxidation, the action of strong acids, or caustic alkali.

corrosion inhibitor

A substance that protects against oxidation of metal surfaces.

corrosive

As defined by DOT, a corrosive material is a liquid or solid that causes a visible destructive or irreversible alterations in human skin tissue at the site of contact; or, in the case of leakage from its packaging, a liquid that has a severe corrosive effect on steel. Two common corrosive liquids are caustic soda and sulfuric acid.

corrugation mark

A fabric defect consisting of a crimped, rippled, wavy, pebbled, or cockled area in the fabric spoiling the uniformity of the texture.

cotton

1. A soft, white fibrous substance composed of the hairs clothing the seeds of an erect, freely branching tropical plant (cotton plant). Cotton was used, at one time, as a face yarn fiber. Cotton is found in washable throw or decorator rugs, in backing systems (warp yarns) of woven goods, in upholstery materials, and clothing. 2. Natural. Cellulosic. Absorbent , affinity to dye, good color retention, prints well. Comfortable. Machine washable, dry cleanable, high strength, soft hand, drapes well, and easy to handle and sew.

cotton count

The numbering system based on length and weight, originally used for cotton yarns and now employed for most staple yarns. It is based on a unit length of 840 yard skeins required to weigh one pound. Under this system, the higher the cotton count number, the finer the yarn.

cotton system

A process originally used for manufacturing cotton fiber into yarn, and now used extensively for producing spun yarns of manufactured fibers, including blends. Processing on the cotton system includes the general operations of opening, picking, carding, drawing, roving, and ring or mule spinning in the production of carded yarns. For combed yarns, three steps, culminating in combing, are included after the carding operation. There have been many modifications of this process, especially in recent years for the so-called long draft, or Casablancas, system. The cotton system is also proving to be the basis of many hybrid systems for handling wool yarns and for manufacturing other long staple yarns.

count

1. A numerical designation of yarn size indicating the relationship of length to weight. 2. The number of warp yarns (ends) and filling yarns (picks) per inch in a woven fabric, or the number of wales and courses per inch in a knit fabric. 3. A number identifying yarn size or weight per unit of length or vice versa depending on the particular system being used.

cove base

A think vinyl strip with a concave lower lip that is adhered to a lower wall surface around the perimeter of a room to provide a smooth transition from the wall to the floorcovering, or to cover the joint between the floorcovering and the wall.

cove base gun

An adhesive applicator that used a cover base mastic cartridge. The mastic is dispensed through either two, three, or four hole nozzles onto the wall base, before adhering the cove base.

cover

1. The degree of evenness of thread spacing. 2. The degree to which underlying structure is concealed by the surface material, as in carpets, the degree to which pile covers backing. 3. The ability of a dye to conceal defects in fabric.

cover factor

The fraction of the surface area that is covered by yarns assuming round yarn shape.

covert

A medium weight to heavy weight wool or wool blend cloth woven with a sharp twill from two or more shades of yarn dyed fibers to produce a mottled or melange effect.

crab

A hand device usually used for stretching carpet in a small area where a power stretcher or knee kicker cannot be used.

crack

A defect in a woven fabric consisting of an open fillingwise streak extending partly or entirely across the fabric.

crawl space

The area beneath the floor that allows access to utilities and other services. This is in contrast to basements and slabs on grade.

crease

A break or line in a fabric usually caused by a sharp fold. Creases may be desirable or undesirable depending upon the situation. A crease may be intentionally pressed into a fabric by application of pressure and heat and sometimes moisture.

crease marks

Crush marks caused by folding.

crease recovery

See wrinkle recovery

crease resistant

A term used to describe a fabric treated chemically to improve its resistance to and recovery from wrinkling.

creasing

The formation of folds, wrinkles, or ridges in textile materials, especially those which adversely affect the appearance or performance of the material during use (following manufacture or carpet installation). See wrinkles.

creel

1. A framework arranged to hold slivers, rovings, or yarns so the many ends can be withdrawn smoothly and evenly without tangling. 2. A similar device used to aggregate sub-tows in manufactured staple processing especially polyester. 3. A frame or rack that holds cones of yarn, which are fed through tubing into the needles of a tufting machine. A frame on which yarn packages are mounted. 4. A frame or rack that hold hundreds (thousands) of cones of yarn. The yarn is fed from the creel through plastic tubing to the needles of a tufting machine. 5. A rack located adjacent to a textile machine which holds the cones of yarn to supply the operation.

creeling

The mounting of supply packages in a creel to feed fiber to a process, i.e., beaming or warping.

cretonne

A plain, twill, or satin weave made of twisted, round yarns, and sometimes printed with large design. It usually contains some foreign matter that adds to the natural appearance of the finished weave. Today, it may be made of cotton, silk, polyester, rayon, linen, or blends of fibers. Wet cleaning may cause crocking or bleeding of dyes.

crewel yarn

A thin, lightweight 2-ply, medium twist yarn used for tapestry and embroidery.

CRI

See Carpet and Rug Institute.

crib

Axminster loom refers to the frame work that carries the pattern spool chain.

crimp

In fiber, a nonlinear configuration, such as sawtooth, zig-zag or random curl relative to the fiber axis. In woven fabrics, nonlinear yarn configurations caused by three-dimensional displacements such as the zig-zagging of warp yarn of warp yarn over fill yarn. Most synthetic fibers, both staple and filament, used in carpets are crimped. Fiber crimp increases bulk and cover and facilitates interlocking of staple fibers in spun yarns.

crimp amplitude

The height of displacement of the fiber from its uncrimped condition.

crimp deregistering

The process of opening a tow band by causing the peaks and valleys of the crimp to lay randomly rather than uniformly.

crimp energy

The amount of work required to uncrimp a fiber.

crimp frequency

The crimp level, or number of crimps per inch in yarn or tow.

crimp setting

An after treatment to set the crimp in yarn or fiber. Usually heat and steam are used, although the treatment may be chemical in nature.

crimped yarn

See textured yarns.

crimping

1. Method of texturizing staple and continuous filament yarn to produce irregular alignment of fibers and increase bulk and covering power; also facilitates interlocking of fibers, which is necessary for spinning staple fibers into yarn. 2. Processing yarn, usually by heat or pressure, to fix a wavy texture an increase bulk. 3. The process of imparting crimp to tow or filament yarn.

crimping (bulking, texturizing)

processing yarn, usually by heat and mechanical pressure, to fix a wavy texture and increase bulk and coverage. Crimping also aids in holding staple yarns together. Types of crimp used in carpet manufacture are curvilinear, random curl, sawtooth, and zig-zag.

crocking

1. Excess coloring matter which rubs off material because of improper penetration or fixation of the dyestuff. 2. Term used to describe excess color rubbing off as a result of improper dye penetration, fixation, or selection.

cropping

The passage of carpet under a revolving cylinder fitted with cutting blades to obtain a level surface and a uniform height of pile. Also called “shearing”.

cross contamination

The process of transferring pathogenic agents from one person (or an object contacted by that person) to another person.

cross dyed

Multicolored effects produced in a fabric with fibers of different dye affinities. A method of dyeing blend or combination fabrics to two or more shades by the use of dyes with different affinities for the different fibers.

cross flow quench

In cooling extruded polymer filaments, refers to cooling air directed from one side across the path of the filaments. There may be some type of suction on the opposite side to remove the heated air.

cross linking

The stabilization of cellulosic or manufactured fibers through chemical reaction with certain compounds in such a way that the cellulose or manufactured polymer chains are bridged across or cross linked. Cross linking improves mechanical factors as wrinkle resistance. Random cross linking in manufactured polymers is undesirable and leads to brittleness and loss of tensile strength.

cross seaming

Seams made by joining the ends of carpet together. cp “side seaming”

cross section

The shape of an individual filament when cut at right angles to its axis. Normal shapes for manufactured fibers vary, The shapes of manufactured fibers can be modified by changing the shape of the holes in the spinneret. Cross sectional variants are produced intentionally in a side variety of shapes for different physical effects such as change in luster or hand, improved resistance to soiling, etc.

cross-over (step-over) tufting

A technique in which two shifting needle bars provide for the crossing over of yarns on the back side of the carpet’s primary backing. This technique provides uniform carpet surface texture and is frequently used in commercial styles to create graphic patterns. A shifting tufting pattern also may be used with only one needle bar.

crowning

A condition that develops when drying excess moisture from wood flooring materials in which the bottom side of the wood planks shrink and flatten, leaving the top of each plank higher than its edges.

crows feet

A fabric defect consisting of breaks or wrinkles of varying degrees of intensity and size, resembling bird’s footprints in shape, and occurring during wet processing of fabrics.

crush bands

Can be identified by crush marks running widthwise across the carpet. Roll crushing will usually disappear with use.

crush marks

Bands of distortion generally running across the width of rolled, pile fabrics, such as velvet upholstery or carpet. Crush marks develop when fabrics are rolled while fibers are hot, or most likely, when subjected to excessive weight or heat during shipping or storage. They sometimes become lighter and narrower as they progress toward the center of the roll.

crushed roll

See crush marks.

crushed velvet

A pile weave with intentional distortion in the face yarn. The crushed effect is set with resins or sizing, which can be removed with use or with cleaning.

crushing

The flattening of carpet pile over a period of use, so that it becomes compressed and loses resiliency. Loss of pile thickness. Crushing usually occurs in areas of heaviest traffic and is also referred to as matting or walking out. Crushing is prevented to some extent by the use of more resilient fibers, by increasing carpet construction density, by proper cushion specification, by increasing yarn twist per inch (while assuring proper heat setting), or with higher face weight to meet the demands of the heavy traffic being experienced.

CSA

See Canadian Standards Association

cubic feet per minute (cfm)

A measure of the volume airflow, or of a substance flowing through air within a fixed period of time. Indoors is the amount of air measured in cubic feet that is delivered and exchanged in one minute. Along with lift cfm is one of the major methods of determining vacuuming efficiency.

cupping

A condition that develops on wood plank flooring materials when the underside of planks absorbs excess moisture and swells, causing expansion and raising the edges of each plank. The edges rise up higher than the center of the plank forming a cupped appearance. Wood flooring should not be sanded until complete until wood planks return to a normal humidity ( approximately 9-10% at 70 degrees F and 50% RH), both on the bottom and top.

curing

1. The process of drying to a useable, more durable state (e.g., curing adhesive laminates during carpet finishing.) 2. A chemical aging process that allows finishes to bond to a surface (e.g., floor finishes require curing time.)

curvilinear crimp

The three dimensional crimp patented by DuPont for its continuous filament yarn. This texturing process is imparted to the yarn by a series of air jets. This curvilinear crimp gives depot’s premium yarns a unique consistency, bulk, and spring back memory that is need in the critical manufacture of cut pile filament carpets and streak-free loop carpets.

cushion (pad/underlay)

Any material placed under carpet to increase insulation, and sound absorption, wear life (resiliency) and aesthetics (soft feel) when walked upon. The three major categories are 1. Urethane: Prime Urethane - carpet cushion (carpet padding) material made of virgin urethane foam. Bonded Urethane (rebond) - carpet cushion (carpet padding) made of new waste urethane salvaged from other manufacturing processes and bonded together to make cushion. Urethane cushion thickness and density should be specified by the carpet manufacturer - a minimum of 7/16” (CRI 105) and 5 pound density. 2. Sponge Rubber (flat, waffle) - Cushion made of natural latex, preservatives and fillers. 3. Felt (natural, synthetic) - Cushion made of natural or synthetic fibers that are blended (felted) into a uniform thickness and latexed (natural), or needlepunched (synthetic) to create carpet cushion (carpet padding).

cushion backed carpet

Carpet having an attached cushion lining, padding, or underlay material. (An integral part of its backing).

custom-tufted

Carpets or rugs in which pile yarns are manually tufted with a hand machine through the back.

cut

A length of carpet cut from a full roll to fill a customer order.

cut loop carpet

Carpet containing both cut pile and loop pile.

cut pile

A carpet pile texture in which the face is composed of cut ends of pile yarn. A fabric, the face of which is composed of cut ends of pile yarn.

cut selvage

A cut or break occurring only in the selvage. A cut selvage is caused by incorrect loom adjustment during weaving or improper edge construction. The term also refers to loose edges cut during shearing of the fabric.

cut staple

1. An inferior cotton fiber that was accidentally cut because it was too damp during ginning. 2. A term sometimes used to denote staple of manufactured fibers.

cut yarn

A defective yarn, i.e., cut partially or completely through, resulting from malprocessing.

cutter

1. A mechanical device used to cut tow into staple. 2. A firm engaged in making up garments from finished fabrics. 3. A person employed in the wholesale garment industry whose specific work is to cut layers of fabric to be formed into garment.

cyan

See secondary colors.

cylinder

1. In carding, a large cast iron shell, with an outer diameter of 40 to 45 inches, completely covered with card clothing on the surface. The shell is mounted rigidly on a shaft which projects at each end to rest in bearings. The cylinder must be accurately balanced since it rotates at speeds of 160 revolutions per minute and higher. 2. The main roll, or pressure bowl, on roller painting machines. The engraved rolls that apply color are arranged around the cylinder. 3. A slotted cylindrical housing for the needles in a circular knitting machine. The number of slots per inch in the cylinder determines the cut of the machine. 4. The part of the Jacquard that supports and holds the punched pattern card in position while the plungers or needles that control the yarn selection pass through the card. This cylinder is not cylindrical in shape but it is frequently 4-,5-, or 6- sided.

cylinder loading

Fibers imbedded so deeply in the wire clothing on a card cylinder that they resist transfer to the doffer cylinder according to the normal fiber path through the card. Causes include improper finish, excess moisture, or static on the fiber. The fiber builds up to such an extent that the carding operation is adversely affected. In extreme cases, the card will be slowed or stopped.

CMA

Chemical Manufacturers Association

coagulation

A joining together of particles in waste water which settle out. Lime, alum, and iron salts induce the clumping of particles.

coarse thread

A yarn larger in diameter than other yarns being used in the fabric.

coated fabric

A fabric to which a substance such as lacquer, plastic, resin, rubber, or varnish has been applied in firmly adhering layers to provide certain properties, such as water impermeability.

cobwebbing

An extreme for of hairiness in which fibers are entangled to form aggregates or “webs” that remain attached to the use surface (pile) or a fabric. Cobwebbing may be found on the surface of loop pile carpet, such as a synthetic Berber, made of BCF yarn. Cobwebbing results from fibers slipping from yarns with inadequate latex penetration (bundle wrap), when pulled upon by traffic and carpet care.

COC

Cleveland Open Cup Test; a method for establishing a chemical’s flashpoint.

cocci

A spherically shaped bacteria.

cockled yarn

Spun yarn in which some fibers do not lie parallel to the other fibers but instead are curled and kinked, forming a rough and uneven surface of the yarn. The general cause is fiber overcut to the extent that the drafting rolls catch and hold both ends of the fiber at the same time while attempting to draft, resulting in slippage or breakage.

cockling

A crimpiness or pucker in yarn or fabric usually caused by lack of uniform quality in the raw material used, improper tension on yarn in weaving, or weaving together yarns of different numbers.

cocklink

A curliness or crimpiness appearing in the cut face pile as a result of a yarn condition.

Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)

A collection of the regulations that have been promulgated under U.S. federal law, which includes OSHA regulations.

cohesion

The force that holds fibers together during yarn manufacturing or processing. It is usually a function of lubricant (type and amount) and fiber crimp.

coil yarn

See textured yarns.

coir

Fiber retrieved from husk of coconut; used in pile layer of track-off mats.

coliform organism

Micro-organism found in the intestinal tract of humans and animals. Their presence in water indicates fecal pollution and potential dangerous bacterial disease causing organisms.

colloidal alumina

The basic ingredient for several anti-static treatments (also soil retardants).

colloidal silica

A basic ingredient for particle soil retardants.

colony

A visible growth of micro-organisms on a culture medium.

colony forming units

A descriptive acronym used in assessing the growth of micro-organisms on fabrics or surfaces. DFU/M3 is an abbreviation for colony forming units per cubic meter of air, or the number of micro-organisms that were able to grow on the collection media found in the sampled air volume (m3).

color abrasion

Color changes in localized areas of a garment resulting from differential wear.

color breakdown

A situation in which incorrect dyeing methods or defective dyes cause a color change over a period of time.

color matching

The proper co-ordination of color hues and shade dept. Critical to color matching are: the light under which colors are compared; the surface texture of the object being matched (cut pile appears darker than loop pile), and the surface luster of the object being matched (high luster looks lighter than low luster).

color remover

Reducing agents that sufficiently reactive to remove color or stains from textile fabrics without destroying textiles themselves.

color stripper

A chemical used to remove some or all of the dyestuffs from a fiber, yarn, or fabric so that dyeing defect can be corrected, a shade lightened, or another color applied.

color, primary and complementary

Primary colors are the principal colors that make up “white” light. Complementary colors are colors that when combined, produce a neutral color or whitish gray as when orange and blue are combined or mixed. (Primary colors: red, blue, and yellow)

color, uneven

Uneven color application during dyeing of carpet or yarn.

colorfastness

Resistance to fading, i.e., the property of a dye to retain its color when the dyed (or printed) textile material is exposed to conditions or agents such as light, perspiration, atmospheric gases, or washing that can remove or destroy the color. A dye may be reasonably fast to one agent and only moderately fast to another. Degree of fastness of color is tested by standard procedures. Textile materials often must meet certain fastness specification for a particular use. The ability of a fiber or fabric containing dyestuffs or pigment to resist breakdown according to manufacturers: and government test standards, under ultraviolet light exposure, wet crocking, dry crocking, cleaning, or atmospheric contaminants.

colorimeter

1. A device that specifies color by measuring the intensities of the three primary colors that compose the color under study. 2. An instrument for measuring the concentration of a known substance in solution by comparing the liquid’s color with standard color.

colorimetry

Any technique for evaluating a given color in terms of standard colors.

color index (CI)

A listing of dyes and chemical structures published by the Society of Dryer and Colorist. Each structure is assigned a name according to chemical composition. Each dye is assigned a number according to its class and shade. A correlating structure number is given when available.

comb

An open top reed.

combed sliver

A continuous band of untwisted fiber, relatively free of short fibers and trash, produced by combing card sliver.

comber board

The part of the Brussels Card Jacquard mechanism that raises all face yarns simultaneously for the insertion of the bottom filling shot. 2. The part of the Fine Index Jacquard through which the lingoes are threaded to hold them in place.

comber yarn

A yarn produced from combed sliver.

combination

A term which refers to yarns or fabrics (1) a combination yarn is composed of two or more yarns having the same or different fibers or twists, e.g., one yarn may have a high twist; the other, little or no twist; (2) a combination fabric is one which uses the above yarns.

combination fabric

A combination fabric use a combination yarn. (A combination yarn is produced with two or more yarns having the same or different fibers or twist: e.g., one yarn may have a high twist and one may have little or no twist.)

combination yarn

(yarn/fabric) A term which refers to yarns. A combination yarn is produced with two or more yarns having the same or different fibers or twist: e.g., one yarn may have a high twist: the other, little or no twist.

combing

A step subsequent to carding in cotton and worsted system processing which straightens the fibers and extracts neps, foreign matter, and short fibers. Combing produces a stronger, more even, more compact, finer, smoother yarn.

combustible

Able to catch fire and burn.

combustible liquid

Any liquid having a flash point at or above 100 degrees F (37.8 degrees C), cut below 200 degrees F (93.3 degrees C), except any mixture having components with flash points of 200 degrees F (93.3 degrees C) or higher, the total volume of which makes up 99% or more of the total volume of the mixture.

combustion

Burning or rapid oxidation accompanied by a release of energy

commercial (color)

Matching colors of fabrics (e.g., side seamed carpet) within acceptable tolerances, generally within 5% plus or minus of a manufacturer or dealer sample, or with a color variation that is barely detectable to the naked eye (usually 3% for the untrained eye). See off color.

commercial allowance

The commercial moisture regain plus a specific allowance for finish used in calculating the commercial or legal weight of a fiber shipment.

commercial matching

Matching of colors within acceptable tolerances, or with a color variation that is barely detectable to the naked eye.

commercial moisture regain

An arbitrary value adopted as the moisture regain to be used in calculating the commercial or legal weight of a fiber shipment.

commercial weight

1. In natural fibers, the dry weight of fibers or yarns plus the commercial moisture regain. 2. In manufactured fibers, the dry weight of staple spun yarns or filament yarns after scouring by prescribed methods, plus the commercial moisture regain.

commingling

See air entangling.

commodity yarn

Yarn that is not warranted by the manufacturer to have special attributes or value. It is usually less expensive than branded yarn.

compact spinning process

A term referring to a spinning process carried out using any one of the several small spinning machines of compact design offered by equipment vendors as packaged units in which spinning and subsequent processing (drawing, crimping, cutting, etc.) are linked.

compacted yarns

Air jet interlaced yarns. Since the entanglement serves only a substitute for twist, the degree of interlace or tangle is not as great as in air jet bulked yarns.

compaction

See intermingling.

compactor

A machine developed by Fabric Research laboratories which is used to compact fabrics or to produce warp stretch fabrics by means of forced crimp and/or shrinkage of the warp yarn.

compliance

The ability of a fiber to yield under stress; the ratio of the change in strain to the change in stress that produces it; the reciprocal of the textile modulus.

composite fibers

Fibers composed of two or more polymer types in a sheath core or side-by-side (bilateral) relation.

compound

A combination of substances, which results in a reaction that forms a new substance that differs from either of its components.

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA)

A federal act requiring that the U.S. Coast Guard National Response Center be notified in the event of a hazardous substance release. The act also provides for a fund (superfund) to be used for cleaning up abandoned hazardous waste disposal sites.

compressed gas

1. Any gas or mixture of gases having, in any container, an absolute pressure exceeding 40 psi at 70 degrees F (21.1 degrees C). 2. A gas or mixture of gases having, in a container, an absolute pressure exceeding 104 psi at 130 degrees F (54.4 degrees C), regardless of its pressure at 70 degrees F (21.1 degrees C). 3. A liquid having a vapor pressure exceeding 40 psi at 100 degrees F (37.8 degrees C) as determined by ASTM D 323-72.

compressed seam technique

An installation technique used to form a durable and inconspicuous seam when two pieces of carpet are being glued to a subfloor.

compressibility

refers to the ease of reducing the bulk of fabric, carpet, batting, or other material. May be high or low, soft, or hard.

concentrate

The undiluted form of a product that is normally mixed with water.

concentration

The relative amount of a substance when combined or mixed with other substances.

condensation

1.A deposit of moisture droplets from humid air on surfaces that are cooler than that air. Condensation will form when warm, moist air contacts a cooler surface causing the air to be reduced to the dew point temperature.2. A polymerization process yielding a product in which the repeating unit has fewer atoms than the monomer(s).

condition

To bring a textile sample or specimen to moisture equilibrium with a specified atmosphere.

conditioned air

Air that has been heated, cooled, or dehumidified to maintain an interior space within the human comfort zone.

conditioning

A process of allowing textile materials (staple, tow, yarn, and fabrics) to reach hygroscopic equilibrium with the surrounding atmosphere. Materials may be conditioned in a standard atmosphere (65%RH, 70 degree F) for testing purposes or in arbitrary conditions existing in manufacturing or processing areas. Bringing a textile sample to moisture equilibrium within a specified atmosphere, prior to performing certain test.

conductive floors

Specially made resilient tile that is designed to drain off or prevent static electricity. This flooring is used frequently in computer rooms.

cone

A conical package of yarn, usually wound on a disposable paper core.

confined space

Any area that has: limited openings for entry and exit; where escape would be difficult in an emergency; which lacks ventilation; which contains known or potential hazards, and which is not intended nor designed for continuous human occupancy.

coning

The transfer of yarn from skeins or bobbins or other types of packages to cones.

conjugate fiber

A two component fiber with specific ability to crimp on hot or hot/wet treatment because of differential shrinkage.

conjugate yarn

A yarn made from conjugate filaments

constant air volume

An air conveyance system that provides a constant airflow while varying the temperature to meet heating and cooling needs.

construction

1. The method by which fabric (e.g., tufted, woven, bonded carpet or upholstery) is manufactured. 2. The sum of a fabric’s components, including fiber type, total density, method of dyeing, etc. 3. Carpet construction is defined by stating the manufacturing method (tufted, woven, etc.), and the final arrangement of materials achieved by following specifications. The method by which the carpet is made; i.e., loom type, pile rows per inch, pitch, wire height, shots, face frames or harnesses, draw, yarn count, face yarn weight, stuffers, kind and quantity of back size, and total carpet weight.

contaminant

Any physical, chemical, biological, or radioactive substance that can have an adverse effect on air, water, soil, or any interior or exterior surface.

continuous dyeing

The process of dyeing carpet on a production line, rather than piece dyeing separate lots. Most often done on continuous dyeing equipment which flows on dyestuffs, as distinguished from submerging carpet in separate dye becks.

continuous filament

1. Continuous strand of synthetic fiber extruded in yarn form, without the need for spinning which all natural fibers require. 2. Continuous strand of synthetic fiber extruded, drawn, crimped, and bundled with other continuous filament fibers to make yarn directly from the extruder, without the need for spinning, as is required by all natural (or synthetic staple) fibers. Any synthetic fiber may be made in a continuous filament form. Silk is the only natural fiber that may be loosely termed continuous filament.

continuous polymerization

In polymer manufacture, linkage of the various stages of polymerization so that materials flow without interruption from the addition of raw materials to delivery of the finished polymer from the system. Extrusion as film, chip, or fiber may be linked to a continuous polymerization line. Because there is no break in the process while the transition from low molecular weight to high occurs, multiple stage reaction vessels may be required and accurate process control is critical.

convection current

The upward movement of air caused by thermal expansion.

converted fabric

A finished fabric as distinguished from greige fabric.

converter

An individual or organization which buys greige fabrics and sells them as a finished product to cutters, wholesalers, retailers, and others. The converter arranges for the finishing of the fabric, namely bleaching, mercerizing, dyeing, printing, etc., to the buyers specifications.

convolution

1. An irregular spiral or twisted condition characteristic of mature cotton fiber. It is visible under a microscope. The finer fibers are usually more twisted than the coarser fibers. 2. Coil and curl in certain types of textured yarns which provide bulkiness to the yarn.

cookie cutter

A circular bladed tool used to remove or replace damaged or stained carpet, up to three inches in diameter.

cop

1. A headless tube upon which yarn or thread is wound. 2. Thread or yarn wound into the shape of hollow cylinder with tapered ends. 3. Filling yarn wound upon a tapered tube.

cord

1. The product formed by twisting together two or more plied yarns. 2. A rib on the surface of a fabric (e.g., corduroy and whipcord).

corded selvage

See loopy selvage.

corduroy

1. A filling pile fabric with ridges of pile (cords) running lengthwise parallel to the selvage. 2. A raised, cut pile formed with one warp and two filling rows, that form ribs that run lengthwise. One of the two filling rows interweaves with the warp chain to form a base or ground fabric, while the other attaches with some warp yarns but floats over three or four others. After weaving, the float yarns are cut, and the pile is brushed to form the velvet like cords. Older corduroys were made of cotton, but today, they may be made of cotton, polyester, acrylics, or blends.

core spinning

The process of making a core spun yarn. It consists of feeding the core yarn (an electrometric filament yarn, a regular filament yarn, a textured yarn, or a previously spun yarn) into the front delivery roll of the spinning frame and of covering the core yarn with a sheath of fibers during the spinning frame and of covering the core yarn with a sheath of fibers during the spinning operation.

core spun yarn

A yarn made by twisting fibers around a filament or a previously spun yarn, concealing the core. Core yarns are used in sewing thread, blankets, and socks and to obtain novelty effects in fabrics.

corkscrew twist

A place in yarn or cord where uneven twist gives a corkscrew-like appearance.

corn rowing

1. A term used to describe matting that occurs in plushes and shags where some of the yarns that do mat form rows, usually across the width of the traffic lanes. These rows are caused when groups of tufts lie down horizontally against the primary backing, which adjacent tufts overlap, causing an appearance similar to rows of corn. 2. The progressive tangling and matting of alternating rows of tufts in entry and traffic areas, when subjected to the rotary motion of traffic and vacuuming (sometimes associated with shags and low-density saxonies). Corn

corrosion

Action or effect of eating away gradually, such as through oxidation, the action of strong acids, or caustic alkali.

corrosion inhibitor

A substance that protects against oxidation of metal surfaces.

corrosive

As defined by DOT, a corrosive material is a liquid or solid that causes a visible destructive or irreversible alterations in human skin tissue at the site of contact; or, in the case of leakage from its packaging, a liquid that has a severe corrosive effect on steel. Two common corrosive liquids are caustic soda and sulfuric acid.

corrugation mark

A fabric defect consisting of a crimped, rippled, wavy, pebbled, or cockled area in the fabric spoiling the uniformity of the texture.

cotton

1. A soft, white fibrous substance composed of the hairs clothing the seeds of an erect, freely branching tropical plant (cotton plant). Cotton was used, at one time, as a face yarn fiber. Cotton is found in washable throw or decorator rugs, in backing systems (warp yarns) of woven goods, in upholstery materials, and clothing. 2. Natural. Cellulosic. Absorbent , affinity to dye, good color retention, prints well. Comfortable. Machine washable, dry cleanable, high strength, soft hand, drapes well, and easy to handle and sew.

cotton count

The numbering system based on length and weight, originally used for cotton yarns and now employed for most staple yarns. It is based on a unit length of 840 yard skeins required to weigh one pound. Under this system, the higher the cotton count number, the finer the yarn.

cotton system

A process originally used for manufacturing cotton fiber into yarn, and now used extensively for producing spun yarns of manufactured fibers, including blends. Processing on the cotton system includes the general operations of opening, picking, carding, drawing, roving, and ring or mule spinning in the production of carded yarns. For combed yarns, three steps, culminating in combing, are included after the carding operation. There have been many modifications of this process, especially in recent years for the so-called long draft, or Casablanca's, system. The cotton system is also proving to be the basis of many hybrid systems for handling wool yarns and for manufacturing other long staple yarns.

count

1. A numerical designation of yarn size indicating the relationship of length to weight. 2. The number of warp yarns (ends) and filling yarns (picks) per inch in a woven fabric, or the number of Wales and courses per inch in a knit fabric. 3. A number identifying yarn size or weight per unit of length or vice versa depending on the particular system being used.

cove base

A think vinyl strip with a concave lower lip that is adhered to a lower wall surface around the perimeter of a room to provide a smooth transition from the wall to the floorcovering, or to cover the joint between the floorcovering and the wall.

cove base gun

An adhesive applicator that used a cover base mastic cartridge. The mastic is dispensed through either two, three, or four hole nozzles onto the wall base, before adhering the cove base.

cover

1. The degree of evenness of thread spacing. 2. The degree to which underlying structure is concealed by the surface material, as in carpets, the degree to which pile covers backing. 3. The ability of a dye to conceal defects in fabric.

cover factor

The fraction of the surface area that is covered by yarns assuming round yarn shape.

covert

A medium weight to heavy weight wool or wool blend cloth woven with a sharp twill from two or more shades of yarn dyed fibers to produce a mottled or mélange effect.

crab

A hand device usually used for stretching carpet in a small area where a power stretcher or knee kicker cannot be used.

crack

A defect in a woven fabric consisting of an open filling wise streak extending partly or entirely across the fabric.

crawl space

The area beneath the floor that allows access to utilities and other services. This is in contrast to basements and slabs on grade.

crease

A break or line in a fabric usually caused by a sharp fold. Creases may be desirable or undesirable depending upon the situation. A crease may be intentionally pressed into a fabric by application of pressure and heat and sometimes moisture.

crease marks

Crush marks caused by folding.

crease recovery

See wrinkle recovery

crease resistant

A term used to describe a fabric treated chemically to improve its resistance to and recovery from wrinkling.

creasing

The formation of folds, wrinkles, or ridges in textile materials, especially those which adversely affect the appearance or performance of the material during use (following manufacture or installation). See wrinkles.

creel

1. A framework arranged to hold slivers, rovings, or yarns so the many ends can be withdrawn smoothly and evenly without tangling. 2. A similar device used to aggregate sub-tows in manufactured staple processing especially polyester. 3. A frame or rack that holds cones of yarn, which are fed through tubing into the needles of a tufting machine. A frame on which yarn packages are mounted. 4. A frame or rack that hold hundreds (thousands) of cones of yarn. The yarn is fed from the creel through plastic tubing to the needles of a tufting machine. 5. A rack located adjacent to a textile machine which holds the cones of yarn to supply the operation.

creeling

The mounting of supply packages in a creel to feed fiber to a process, i.e., beaming or warping.

cretonne

A plain, twill, or satin weave made of twisted, round yarns, and sometimes printed with large design. It usually contains some foreign matter that adds to the natural appearance of the finished weave. Today, it may be made of cotton, silk, polyester, rayon, linen, or blends of fibers. Wet cleaning may cause crocking or bleeding of dyes.

crewel yarn

A thin, lightweight 2-ply, medium twist yarn used for tapestry and embroidery.

CRI

See Carpet and Rug Institute.

crib

Axminster loom refers to the frame work that carries the pattern spool chain.

crimp

In fiber, a nonlinear configuration, such as saw tooth, zigzag or random curl relative to the fiber axis. In woven fabrics, nonlinear yarn configurations caused by three-dimensional displacements such as the zigzagging of warp yarn of warp yarn over fill yarn. Most synthetic fibers, both staple and filament, used in carpets are crimped. Fiber crimp increases bulk and cover and facilitates interlocking of staple fibers in spun yarns.

crimp amplitude

The height of displacement of the fiber from its uncrimped condition.

crimp deregistering

The process of opening a tow band by causing the peaks and valleys of the crimp to lay randomly rather than uniformly.

crimp energy

The amount of work required to uncrimp a fiber.

crimp frequency

The crimp level, or number of crimps per inch in yarn or tow.

crimp setting

An after treatment to set the crimp in yarn or fiber. Usually heat and steam are used, although the treatment may be chemical in nature.

crimped yarn

See textured yarns.

crimping

1. Method of texturizing staple and continuous filament yarn to produce irregular alignment of fibers and increase bulk and covering power; also facilitates interlocking of fibers, which is necessary for spinning staple fibers into yarn. 2. Processing yarn, usually by heat or pressure, to fix a wavy texture an increase bulk. 3. The process of imparting crimp to tow or filament yarn.

crimping (bulking, texturizing)

processing yarn, usually by heat and mechanical pressure, to fix a wavy texture and increase bulk and coverage. Crimping also aids in holding staple yarns together. Types of crimp used in carpet manufacture are curvilinear, random curl, saw tooth, and zigzag.

crocking

1. Excess coloring matter which rubs off material because of improper penetration or fixation of the dyestuff. 2. Term used to describe excess color rubbing off as a result of improper dye penetration, fixation, or selection.

cropping

The passage of carpet under a revolving cylinder fitted with cutting blades to obtain a level surface and a uniform height of pile. Also called “shearing”.

cross contamination

The process of transferring pathogenic agents from one person (or an object contacted by that person) to another person.

cross dyed

Multicolored effects produced in a fabric with fibers of different dye affinities. A method of dyeing blend or combination fabrics to two or more shades by the use of dyes with different affinities for the different fibers.

cross flow quench

In cooling extruded polymer filaments, refers to cooling air directed from one side across the path of the filaments. There may be some type of suction on the opposite side to remove the heated air.

cross linking

The stabilization of cellulosic or manufactured fibers through chemical reaction with certain compounds in such a way that the cellulose or manufactured polymer chains are bridged across or cross linked. Cross linking improves mechanical factors as wrinkle resistance. Random cross linking in manufactured polymers is undesirable and leads to brittleness and loss of tensile strength.

cross seaming

Seams made by joining the ends of carpet together. cp “side seaming”

cross section

The shape of an individual filament when cut at right angles to its axis. Normal shapes for manufactured fibers vary, The shapes of manufactured fibers can be modified by changing the shape of the holes in the spinneret. Cross sectional variants are produced intentionally in a side variety of shapes for different physical effects such as change in luster or hand, improved resistance to soiling, etc.

cross-over (step-over) tufting

A technique in which two shifting needle bars provide for the crossing over of yarns on the back side of the carpet’s primary backing. This technique provides uniform carpet surface texture and is frequently used in commercial styles to create graphic patterns. A shifting tufting pattern also may be used with only one needle bar.

crowning

A condition that develops when drying excess moisture from wood flooring materials in which the bottom side of the wood planks shrink and flatten, leaving the top of each plank higher than its edges.

crows feet

A fabric defect consisting of breaks or wrinkles of varying degrees of intensity and size, resembling bird’s footprints in shape, and occurring during wet processing of fabrics.

crush bands

Can be identified by crush marks running widthwise across the carpet. Roll crushing will usually disappear with use.

crush marks

Bands of distortion generally running across the width of rolled, pile fabrics, such as velvet upholstery or carpet. Crush marks develop when fabrics are rolled while fibers are hot, or most likely, when subjected to excessive weight or heat during shipping or storage. They sometimes become lighter and narrower as they progress toward the center of the roll.

crushed roll

See crush marks.

crushed velvet

A pile weave with intentional distortion in the face yarn. The crushed effect is set with resins or sizing, which can be removed with use or with cleaning.

crushing

The flattening of carpet pile over a period of use, so that it becomes compressed and loses resiliency. Loss of pile thickness. Crushing usually occurs in areas of heaviest traffic and is also referred to as matting or walking out. Crushing is prevented to some extent by the use of more resilient fibers, by increasing carpet construction density, by proper carpet cushion specification, by increasing yarn twist per inch (while assuring proper heat setting), or with higher face weight to meet the demands of the heavy traffic being experienced.

CSA

See Canadian Standards Association

cubic feet per minute (cfm)

A measure of the volume airflow, or of a substance flowing through air within a fixed period of time. Indoors is the amount of air measured in cubic feet that is delivered and exchanged in one minute. Along with lift cfm is one of the major methods of determining vacuuming efficiency.

cupping

A condition that develops on wood plank flooring materials when the underside of planks absorbs excess moisture and swells, causing expansion and raising the edges of each plank. The edges rise up higher than the center of the plank forming a cupped appearance. Wood flooring should not be sanded until complete until wood planks return to a normal humidity ( approximately 9-10% at 70 degrees F and 50% RH), both on the bottom and top.

curing

1. The process of drying to a useable, more durable state (e.g., curing adhesive laminates during carpet finishing.) 2. A chemical aging process that allows finishes to bond to a surface (e.g., floor finishes require curing time.)

curvilinear crimp

The three dimensional crimp patented by DuPont for its continuous filament yarn. This texturing process is imparted to the yarn by a series of air jets. This curvilinear crimp gives depot’s premium yarns a unique consistency, bulk, and spring back memory that is need in the critical manufacture of cut pile filament carpets and streak-free loop carpets.

cushion (pad/underlay)

Any material placed under carpet to increase insulation, and sound absorption, wear life (resiliency) and aesthetics (soft feel) when walked upon. The three major categories are 1. Urethane: Prime Urethane - Carpet cushion material made of virgin urethane foam. Bonded Urethane (rebond) - Carpet cushion made of new waste urethane salvaged from other manufacturing processes and bonded together to make cushion. Urethane cushion thickness and density should be specified by the carpet manufacturer - a minimum of 7/16” (CRI 105) and 5 pound density. 2. Sponge Rubber (flat, waffle) - Cushion made of natural latex, preservatives and fillers. 3. Felt (natural, synthetic) - Cushion made of natural or synthetic fibers that are blended (felted) into a uniform thickness and latexed (natural), or needle punched (synthetic) to create carpet cushion.

cushion backed carpet

Carpet having an attached cushion lining, padding, or underlay material. (An integral part of its backing).

custom-tufted

Carpets or rugs in which pile yarns are manually tufted with a hand machine through the back.

cut

A length of carpet cut from a full roll to fill a customer order.

cut loop carpet

Carpet containing both cut pile and loop pile.

cut pile

A carpet pile texture in which the face is composed of cut ends of pile yarn. A fabric, the face of which is composed of cut ends of pile yarn.

cut selvage

A cut or break occurring only in the selvage. A cut selvage is caused by incorrect loom adjustment during weaving or improper edge construction. The term also refers to loose edges cut during shearing of the fabric.

cut staple

1. An inferior cotton fiber that was accidentally cut because it was too damp during ginning. 2. A term sometimes used to denote staple of manufactured fibers.

cut yarn

A defective yarn, i.e., cut partially or completely through, resulting from improper processing.

cutter

1. A mechanical device used to cut tow into staple. 2. A firm engaged in making up garments from finished fabrics. 3. A person employed in the wholesale garment industry whose specific work is to cut layers of fabric to be formed into garment.

cyan

See secondary colors.

cylinder

1. In carding, a large cast iron shell, with an outer diameter of 40 to 45 inches, completely covered with card clothing on the surface. The shell is mounted rigidly on a shaft which projects at each end to rest in bearings. The cylinder must be accurately balanced since it rotates at speeds of 160 revolutions per minute and higher. 2. The main roll, or pressure bowl, on roller painting machines. The engraved rolls that apply color are arranged around the cylinder. 3. A slotted cylindrical housing for the needles in a circular knitting machine. The number of slots per inch in the cylinder determines the cut of the machine. 4. The part of the Jacquard that supports and holds the punched pattern card in position while the plungers or needles that control the yarn selection pass through the card. This cylinder is not cylindrical in shape but it is frequently 4-,5-, or 6- sided.

cylinder loading

Fibers imbedded so deeply in the wire clothing on a card cylinder that they resist transfer to the doffer cylinder according to the normal fiber path through the card. Causes include improper finish, excess moisture, or static on the fiber. The fiber builds up to such an extent that the carding operation is adversely affected. In extreme cases, the card will be slowed or stopped.

Did you know?

Carpet water damage can be one of the frustrating occurrences for any homeowner. In most case, the insurance provider will choose to restore the flood damaged carpet, but the carpet manufacturer will void all carpet warranty following flood damage.

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