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Carpet Glossary D


A dry solvent with a citrus fragrance that is used in some preconditioning agents to aid in emulsification of heavy oily residues.

damaged carpet

Holes or tears in new carpet caused by improper handling in manufacturing, shipping, dealer preparation or carpet installation, depending on when the problem was discovered. Damage to wrapping materials, or outer or inner (lift pole damage) portions of the carpet roll may provide clues leading to a line of investigation.


1. A figured, reversible woven fabric made on a jacquard loom. It is characterized by float yarns running in both the warp and filling direction to form different portions of the satin design. When the fabric is reversed, the satin designs formed by warp and filler yarns are reversed. It is distinguished from a brocade, which is not reversible nor is it as lustrous. 2. A firm, glossy, jacquard-patterned fabric that may be made from linen, cotton, rayon, silk, or a combination of these with various manufactured fibers. Similar to brocade, but flatter and reversible, damask is used for napkins, tablecloths, draperies, and upholstery.

damp mopping

Mopping with a mop wrung out tightly after being immersed in a clean solution containing mild detergent, disinfectant, or sanitizing agent.

dampening (In tire cord)

The relative ability to absorb energy and deaden oscillation after excitation.


Controls the variation of airflow through an air outlet, inlet, or duct. A damper position may be immovable, manually adjustable, or part of an automated control system.

dead yarn

That portion of a yarn that is submerged in the backing of a textile fabric which does not contribute directly to aesthetics or wearability of the fabric.


A unit of sound measurement. Sound doubles in loudness for every ten (10) decibels.


Breakdown of a material or substance (by heat, chemical reaction, electrolysis, decay, or other processes) into parts, or elements or simpler compounds.

deep dye

Modified synthetic fibers with increased dye affinity relative to regular dye fibers. By combining deep dye fibers with regular dye fibers, a two color effect can be achieved within one dye bath.

deep dyeing variants

Polymers that have been chemically modified to increase their dyeability. Fibers and fabrics made therefrom can be dyed to a very heavy dept.


A general term that refers to some flaw in a textile product that detracts from either performance or appearance properties.


1. Needles in the tufting machine that are pushed aside by a warp end in the backing cloth causing a streak or grinning running lengthwise because of off standard tuft spacing across the width. 2. When the needles withdraw, warp yarns move back to their original oppositions, thus pushing tuft rows off gauge and creating wide gaps between them.


In cleaning, this term refers to separation of soil from a surface on which it is deposited, normally accomplished with detergent action.


A liquid or powdered material that suppresses or inhibits the formation of foam during cleaning. A surface active agent that is used in cleaning to reduce detergent foaming.


A change in the shape of a specimen, e.g., an increase in length produced as the result of the application of a tensile load or force. Deformation may be immediate or delayed, and the latter may be recoverable or nonrecoverable.


The loss of desirable physical properties by a textile material as a result of some process or physical/chemical phenomenon.


1. To impair with respect to some physical property of a material. 2. To reduce a chemical in terms of complexity. To break down in simpler compounds.


An aggressive detergent compound or dry solvent designed to be used primarily on heavy, oily soils. Degreasing activity is usually achieved by adding alkaline builders or dry solvents to basic surfactants.

degree of exterification

The extent to which the acid groups of terephthalic and/or other acids have reacted with diols to form ester groups in polyester polymer production.

degree of polymerization

Refers to the number of monomer units in an average polymer. It can be controlled during processing and affects the properties of the end product.


the removal of gum from silk by boiling in a mildly alkaline solution. Usually accomplished on the knit or woven fabric.


the process of reducing the moisture content of air.


A mechanical device that promotes dehumidification. Two classes of dehumidifiers are used in water damage restoration: refrigerant (operating on the condensation principle), and desiccant (operating on the adsorption principle. Three types of dehumidifiers are used in the context of carpet drying and water damage restoration: 1. Standard refrigerant - This unit circulates a coolant (FreonÒ) through copper or aluminum coils, on which moisture condenses when air is drawn through the unit by a fan. Ice tends to form on these coils at temperatures below 68 degrees f/20 degrees c, thereby considerably reducing the unit’s efficiency. 2. Hot gas bypass - A refrigerant dehumidifier that operates on a heat pump principle to periodically de-ice coils, thus allowing the unit to continue to dehumidification process down to temperatures approaching the freezing level. 3. Desiccant - A desiccant is a highly adsorbent material (e.g., silica gel) which removes humidity from air as it passes through porous panels containing the desiccant, with dry air being recirculated back into the structure being dried.


Separation of the primary and secondary backing (or cushion) of tufted carpet. In newer carpet, most delamination is caused by improper formulation or application of adhesives, or improper specification carpet or cushion. In older carpet, the cause of delamination usually can be traced to age and oxidation of latex, or simply to excessive traffic (especially that which rolls over the carpet). Localized delamination may be caused by excessive use of dry solvent spotters, or by fuel oil spills. Samples should be included for testing. The current FHA minimum for backing lamination strength is 2.5 pounds.

delayed deformation

Deformation that is time dependent and is exhibited by material subjected to a continuing load; creep. Delayed deformation may be recoverable or nonrecoverable following removal of the applied load.

delustered fiber (yarns)

Subduing or dulling the natural luster of synthetic fibers (primarily) by the addition of pigment (titanium dioxide), or by physical means. Fiber producers designations include dull, semi-dull, and semi-bright, whereas bright fibers are non-delustered. Synthetic fibers in which brightness or reflectivity is reduced, usually by incorporation of a fraction of a percent to white pigment such as titanium dioxide.

delustered fibers

Synthetic fibers in which brightness or reflectivity is reduced, usually by incorporation of a fraction of a percent of white pigment such as titanium dioxide. Fiber producers’ designations include dull, semi-dull and semi-bright, whereas right fibers are non-delustered.


A substance that can be used to dull the luster of a manufactured fiber. Often a pigment such as titanium dioxide.


A yarn count unit. It is the weight in grams of 9000 meters. Denier is a direct yarn numbering system: the higher the denier, the larger the yarn. Unit of weight for the size of a single filament. The higher the denier, the heavier the yarn

denier per filament

The denier of an individual continuous filament fiber, or individual staple fiber if it were continuous. The common range of commercial carpet fiber is from 15 to 18 denier per filament. The denier of an individual continuous filament or an individual staple fiber if it were continuous. In filament yarns, it is the yarn denier divided by the number of filaments.

denier variation

Usually variation in diameter, or other cross sectional dimension, along the length of a filament or bundle of filaments. It is caused by malfunction or lack of process control in fiber manufacturing and degrades resulting fabric appearance or performance.


The weight of pile yarn in a unit volume of carpet. U.S. government FHA density (D), expressed in ounces per cubic yard, is given by the formula:

D = W x 36 divided by T; in which D is Density, W is pile yarn weight in ounces per square yard, and T is pile thickness or height in inches.

see also carpet construction

density height

The square of the density multiplied by the pile height; a criterion by which the potential wear life of different carpet grades can be compared theoretically. The assumption is made in the use of this criterion that the fibers in the materials being compared are of equal quality, and all other factors are constant. For example, if a carpet has a density of 32 and a pile height of .25 inches, a 25 percent increase in the pile height would mean a corresponding 25 percent increase in the durability of the carpet. However, if the density of the carpet were increased by 25 percent, the durability would have been increased by 66 percent.

see also carpet construction


1. The space between wires of reed, heddles, or harness through which the warp ends are drawn. 2. The space between two chains in a fabric. 3. On a loom, the space between the wires of a reed.


1. A chemical or gas that covers, modifies, removes, or destroys odor causing agents. 2. A substance used to remove, correct, or repress undesirable odors.


Products specifically formulated to destroy, mask, or modify unpleasant odors from the carpet.


A condition that occurs when air pressure inside a structure is lower than air pressure outside.

deregistering (crimp)

Process of disordering or disaligning the crimp in a tow band to produce bulk.


A chemical agent that absorbs moisture (e.g., lithium chloride, silica gel).


An aftertreatment to remove sulfur from newly spun viscose rayon by passing the yarn through a sodium sulfide solution.


The ability to clean or remove soil.


1. A cleaning agent. The term detergent refers to a prepared compound that may include surfactants, builders, dry solvents, softeners, brighteners, fragrances, etc., but does not include true soap. 2. A synthetic cleaning agent containing surfactants that do not precipitate in hard water and have suspend dirt. Any substance that is capable of dislodging, removing, or emulsifying soils. The term is often used for formulated products that contain surfactant builders, solvents, et.

developed dyes

Dyes that are formed by the use of a developer. The substrate is first dyed in a neutral solution with a dye base, usually colorless. The dye is then diazotized with sodium nitrite and an acid and afterwards treated with a solution of - naphthol, or a similar substance, which is the developer. Direct dyes are developed to produce a different shade or to improve washfastness and lightfastness.


A stage in dyeing or printing in which leuco compounds, dyes, or dye intermediates are converted to the final, stable state or shade.

dew point

The temperature at which humidity in air reaches saturation (100% rh) and will condense from that air to form dew on surfaces. Fog forms in air when temperature and dew point are within 2 degrees f, plus or minus, of each other.

diagonal conditions

Bands or lines which run diagonally to the side edge.

diatomaceous earth

A white, highly absorbent powdered material used as a filter, to arrest dye transfer following cleaning, or as a spotting poultice.

differential dyeing

(Dye-variant fibers) Fibers, natural, or man-made, so treated or modified in composition that their affinity for dyes becomes changed; i.e., to be reserved, dye lighter, or dye darker than normal fibers, dependent upon the particular dyes and methods of application employed.

diffuser (grilles)

Components of the ventilation system that distribute and diffuse air to promote circulation in occupied spaces. Diffusers supply air and grilles return air.


A chemical agent, usually an organic enzyme, which is used to break down stains like blood or food products. An enzyme used to break down complex protein molecules that cause stains or odor.


The biochemical decomposition or organic matter, resulting in partial gasification, liquefaction and mineralization of pollutants.


A barrier constructed to control or confine spilled hazardous substances and prevent them from entering sewers, ditches, streams, or other flower water.


Making a substance less concentrated by the addition of gas or liquid.

dilution ratio

The ratio at which a cleaning agent is diluted in water for its recommended effective use, often expressed as a number such as 1:128 , referring to parts of chemical dissolved in parts of water (e.g., 1:128 = 1 part chemical to 128 parts water).

dilution ventilation

Airflow designed to dilute contaminants to acceptable levels. May be refereed to as general ventilation or exhaust.

dimensional restorability

The ability of a fabric to be returned to its original dimensions after laundering or dry cleaning, expressed in percent.

dimensional stability

The ability of a fabric to retain or maintain its size and shape when subjected to mechanical action, changes in ambient humidity and/or temperatures, or when soaked with water and dried. In tufted carpet, increased dimensional stability may be accomplished by backcoating with adhesive, or by mechanical means. A secondary backing adds dimensional stability to tufted carpet, as does power stretching during carpet installation. In woven carpet dimensional stability is achieved by choosing stable backing yarns especially the stuffer and filling yarns, as well as by application of latex to the back of the completed carpet. In fabrics, dimensional stability may be achieved by the application of a backcoat. The ability of textile material to maintain or return to its original geometric configuration.

dip coating

The process of passing a fabric through a solution of resin or elastomer, then through squeeze rolls to remove excess and leave a thick surface layer on the base fabric. In this process, both sides can be coated in one pass.

direct dyes

A class of dyestuffs that are applied directly to the substrate in a neutral or alkaline bath. They produce full shades on cotton and linen without mordanting and can be applied to rayon, silk, and wool. Direct dyes give bright shades but exhibit poor washfastness. Various aftertreatments are used to improve the washfastness of direct dyes, and such dyes are referred to as after treated direct colors.

direct glue carpet installation method

carpet installation technique in which carpet is glued directly to decking or subflooring or other substrate.

dirty back

A condition in which excess face yarn shows on the back of woven carpet, caused by poor timing, insufficient tension on yarns, bulky face yarns, and insufficient stuffer yarns.


A condition in which existing dye structures have been altered or removed.


A chemical agent that will kill a broad spectrum of micro-organisms (fungi, bacteria), but not all their spores. Descriptions of products of this type include the suffix “cide”, meaning to “kill” e.g., bactericide, fungicide, virucide. The EPA registration of disinfectants is your assurance of performance when the product is used on specific strains of micro-organisms according to label directions. Disinfectant solutions encountered in fabric cleaning usually contain alcohol (60-90%), chlorine bleach (1/2 - 1%), hydrogen peroxide (3%), quaternary ammonium chloride (0.04 - 1.6%), pine oil (at least 70%), or, less likely, a phenolic compound (0.4 - 5% O-phenylphenol). A chemical agent that destroys micro-organisms, but not bacterial spores. An agent used to completely destroy all harmful bacteria. Labeling for such materials requires proof of effectiveness for registration with EPA.


A dispersing agent, often of a surface active chemical, that promotes formation of a dispersion or maintains a state of dispersion by preventing settling or aggregation.

disperse dye

1. An organic dye originally used for acetate. There is a wide use of organic dyeing in nylon, acrylic, and polyester carpet fibers. Disperse dyes are not soluble in water (like pigment), they are supplied in a finely ground form that will disperse in water. Disperse dyes are held onto fiber surfaces by friction and strong electrical forces and, for the most part, are unaffected by cleaning and many color removing agents. 2. A class of slightly water-soluble dyes originally introduced for dyeing acetate and applied from fine aqueous suspensions. Disperse dyes are widely used for dyeing most of the manufactured fibers.

dispersing agent

A wetting agent (detergent or other chemical) that accelerates the uniform diffusion of dye molecules throughout a dye bath.


1. A system consisting of finely divided particles and the medium in which they are distributed. 2. Separation of light into colors by diffraction or refraction. 3. A qualitative estimation of the separation and uniform distribution of fibers in the liquid during the production of a wet formed nonwoven fabric.


Final placement or destruction of wastes.


For biopollutants, the way and means of leavening a reservoir and coming in contact with a human receptor.

dissolve solids

Disintegrated organic or inorganic material contained in water.


Any of several alterations in the appearance of textile surfaces or carpet pile, usually occurring in heavy-use areas, or entry, pivot and high traffic areas on carpet.

distribution length

In fibers, a graphic or tabular presentation of the proportion or percentage (by number or by weight) of fibers having different lengths.


A two pronged tool that is used to mark a specific, uniform distance from the wall to the flooring material, and which can be used to scribe patterns and circles prior to cutting.


Abbreviation for Do-It-Yourself.

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)

The nucleic acid in chromosomes that contains the genic information.

Do-It-Yourself (DIY) cleaning

Cleaning accomplished by non-professional carpet owners.


1. A mechanical attachment on a loom. A dobby controls the harnesses to permit the weaving or geometric figures. 2. A loom equipped with a dobby. 3. A fabric woven on a dobby loom. A device that selects the rotation in which one or more of a group of harnesses are raised over a filling shot. It can float an end over as many filling shots as desired. Produces geometric patterns.

doctor blade

A metal knife that cleans or scrapes the excess dye from engraved printing rollers, leaving dye paste only in the valleys of engraved areas. Also used to describe other blades that are used to apply materials evenly to rollers or fabrics.

doctor streak

A defect in printed fabrics consisting of a wavy white or colored streak in the warp direction. It is caused by a damaged or improperly set doctor blade on the printing machine.


Multi-wheeled platforms used for moving heavy objects or furniture.


Describes carpet made by skilled craftsmen in the United States.

door pin tool

A notched tool made from hardened steel that is used for removal of hinge pins from odors.

dope dyed

Same as spun dyed and solution dyed. This applies to synthetic fibers only. The coloring materials are added to the solution before extruding through a spinneret to form the filament.

dose response relationship

A relationship between the amount of harmful substance to which a human is exposed and the extent of injury or reaction produced by that substance.

double back

A woven or nonwoven material adhered to the backing of some carpet as additional reinforcement, to provide greater dimensional stability and improved tuft bind. May be known as scrim back.

Double beating

Two successive beats of the reed to press heavy or bulky filling in place.

double bucket procedure

A mopping technique using two buckets, or a single bucket with two compartments. The first bucket may contain a cleaner and/or disinfectant, while the second bucket contains clear rinse water. The mop goes from the disinfectant to the floor, and from the floor to the rinse water; then to the wringer and back to the cleaner/disinfectant solution. This procedure reduces contamination of a disinfectant solution.

double faced molding

Metal strip designed to protect the abutting edges of two fabrics against raveling and wear.

double faced tape

Tape with adhesive on both sides that is occasionally used to secure carpet to flooring surfaces temporarily.

double glue carpet installation (double stick)

A carpet installation technique (primarily commercial) in which carpet cushion (carpet padding) is adhered to the subflooring, followed by the carpet being adhered to the cushion. This technique avoids the need for extensive power stretching and minimized wrinkling or buckling when the carpet relaxes or is exposed to heavy traffic over time.

double weave

A fabric woven with two systems of warp or filling threads so combined that only one is visible on either side. Cutting the yarns that hold the two cloths together yields two separate cut pile fabrics.


1. A process for combining several strands of sliver, roving, or yarn in yarn manufacturing. 2. The process of twisting together two or more singles or plied yarns, i.e., plying. 3. A British term for twisting. 4. The term doubling is sometimes used in a sense opposite to singling. This is unintentional plying. 5. A yarn considerably heavier than normal, produced by a broken end becoming attached to and twisting into another end.


See denier per filament.


In weaving, a pattern or plan for drawing-in.

draft ratio

The ratio between the weight or length of fiber fed into various machines and that delivered from the machines in spun yarn manufacture. It represents the reduction in bulk and weight of stock, one of the most important principles in the production of yarn from staple fibers.

drag tool

A heavy, weighted piece of equipment (wand) used for hot water extraction steam carpet cleaning. The wand contains the vacuum head and detergent jets. A weighted floor tool used for steam cleaning or for vacuum extraction of excess water from water flooded carpet. A solid compression roller on the drag tool may be helpful in distributing antimicrobial compounds.

drain cleaner

A strong chemical product (usually highly caustic) that is formulated to clean or break up clogs of grease, hair, and other waste materials that become embedded in drains.


The manner and rotation in which the warp ends are placed in the loom heddles and reeds.

draw ratio

The ratio of final to original length per unit weight of yarn, laps, slivers, and slubbings, rovings, etc., resulting from drawing.


A cross end; an end broken during warping that when repaired was not free or was tied in with an adjacent end or ends overlapping the broken end. The end draws or pulls back when unwound on the slasher.

draw-frame blends

Blends of fibers made at the draw frame by feeding in ends of appropriate card sliver. This method is used when blend uniformity is not a critical factor.


A system linking draw-warping and sizing in a continuous process. A typical system includes the following elements: creel, eyelet board, warp-draw machine, intermingler, tension compensator and break monitor, sizing bath, dryers, waxing, and winding units.


The ends are drawn in straight or direct sequence from first to last harness in the plan.


In the manufacture of thermoplastic fibers, the simultaneous process of drawing to increase molecular orientation and imparting crimp to increase bulk.


The operation of stretching continuous filament yarn to align and order the molecular and crystalline structure in which the yarn is taken up by means of a ring and traveler device that inserts a small amount of twist (usually 1/4 to 1/2 turn per inch) into the drawn yarn.


A process in which a number of threadlines, usually 800 to 2000 ends of P0Y feedstock, are oriented under essentially equal mechanical and thermal conditions by a stretching stage using variable speed rolls, then directly wound onto the beam. This process gives uniform end to end properties.


The operation of stretching continuous filament yarn to align or order molecular and crystalline structure. the drawn yarn is taken up on a parallel tube or cheese, resulting in a zero twist yarn.


1. Stretching synthetic fiber immediately after extrusion in order to align and strengthen polymer molecules. It is during drawing that fibers are oriented so that they will have greater tensile strength. 2. Elongation of silver (combed staple fiber strands) in the yarn spinning process, prior to being twisted into yarn singles. 3. The process of attenuating or increasing the length per unit weight of laps, slivers, slubbings, and rovings. 4. The hot or cold stretching of continuous filament yarn or tow to align and arrange the crystalline structure of the molecules to achieve improved tensile properties.


In weaving, the process of threading warp ends through the eyes of the heddles and the dents of the reed.


The process of placing the warp ends through the heddles and reeds of the loom.

drawn down

The amount by which manufactured filaments are stretched following extrusion.

drawn tow

A zero twist bundle of continuous filaments that has been stretched to achieve molecular orientation. (Tows for staple and spun yarn applications are usually crimped.)

driving bar

An off set steel tool that permits installers to installers to install tackless strip under toe kicks (recesses), radiators, etc., without damage.

drop match

1. A pattern in printed, high-low, cut-loop, or figured woven carpet which repeats diagonally. Each corresponding pattern element drops down a certain distance, usually a half pattern repeat in length, instead of simply repeating horizontally across the width as in set match. A pattern that continues across the carpet diagonally or at a 45 degree angle to the edge of a seam. 2. When the design in a carpet must be dropped in the next combining width of carpet to maintain the pattern.


A coarse, heavy, imported, fabric, felted, or plain woven, usually of all wood. The designs are either woven into the fabric or printed.

dry chemical extinguisher

A powdered fir extinguishing agent, usually composed of sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, etc.

dry cleaning

Removing dirt and stains from fabrics or garments by processing in organic solvents (chlorinated hydrocarbons or mineral spirits. )

dry cleaning sponge

A sponge made by aeration of chemical compounds, which has an affinity for loose soot residues. It is most useful on the field of disaster restoration services in removing particle residue (soot) from a variety of delicate or moisture sensitive surfaces.

dry foam

A detergent solution containing only a small amount of water is mechanically worked into the surface of the carpet and the loose soil is removed by a vacuum.

dry foam cleaning

A minimum moisture method of cleaning in which, following dry soil removal (vacuuming), a dense foam is produced within a dry foam machine through mechanical aeration of liquid detergent. The foam is distributed within the carpet pile via reel type brush action. As the machines move forward over the carpet or fabric, foam is applied, it is agitated for soil suspension, and the excess foam (along with suspended soil) is extracted by means of wet vacuum, often incorporated into the same machine. In this cleaning method a concentrated foam is used as the cleaning element.

dry powder cleaning

A carpet cleaning method that uses an absorbent powder that contains a solvent. The powder is worked the carpet pile in order to absorb the grease and dirt, allowed to set for a period and then vacuumed.

dry room

A large, enclosed chamber through which hot air circulates. Carpets are hung in this room to dry after in-plant cleaning.

dry rot

A condition caused by attack by micro-organisms on fibers, textiles, carpets, or other materials, characterized by loss of strength and integrity. Attack on carpet backings permits carpet to break and tear easily. Cellulosics such as jute are susceptible whereas polypropylene and most other synthetics are virtually immune. A condition caused by attack by micro-organisms on fibers, textiles, carpets, or other materials, characterized by less of strength and integrity. Attack on carpet backings permits carpet to break and tear easily. Dry rot is identified by loss of strength, usually in the backing causing the material to break or tear easily and is associated with growth of bacteria and fungus on the back of the rug or carpet. The slow, progressive deteriorating effect of micro-organisms (fungi) over a period of time under minimum-moisture conditions on organic (especially cellulosic) textile fibers (e.g., carpet backing materials). Eventually, dry rot causes a loss of strength and fabric integrity.

dry soil removal principal

See principles of cleaning.

dry solvent

A non-water liquid (hydrocarbon) that has an ability to dissolve oils, greases, etc.

dry spotter

A stain removal agent containing dry solvents. Used primarily for grease or oily type stains.


See air conveyance system.


A term applied to manufactured fibers that have been chemically or physically modified to reduce their normal luster. Matte; opposite of bright; low in luster.

DuPont solution dyed nylon (DSDN)

DuPont solution dyed nylon fiber combines good value and quality in loop pile carpets.

DuPont XTI

DuPont XTI nylon fiber combines a good value and quality in cut pile carpets.


A relative term for the resistance of material to loss of physical properties or appearance as a result of wear or dynamic operation


DuPont’s patented soil resistance technology helps carpet retain their appearance two times longer than carpets treated with other topical treatments. The unique DuraTech chemistry has an affinity for Antron Legacy nylon that helps it adhere like no other soil protection technology available today.


Particles light enough to be suspended in air.

dust cover

An inexpensive spun or plain woven fabric that covers the bottom of upholstered furniture or box springs. Originally made of non-colorfast cotton fabric, most of today’s dust covers are made of spun polypropylene.


A narrow width of carpet side-seamed to standard carpet widths to fill in unusual offsets, sloping walls, etc.

dwell time

See soil suspension principle. The time during a process in which a particular substance remains in one location (e.g., the time during which molten polymer remains in a spinning pack).


A soluble, color absorbing/reflecting material. Dyes differ in: their resistance to sunlight, perspiration, cleaning agents, atmospheric gases; their solubility; their affinity for differing fibers; and their method of application.

dye beck

A large vat for piece dyeing carpet by immersion in aqueous solutions of dyes and chemicals. Fitted with a reel for circulating carpet in and out of the dye liquor, inlets for steam and water, drains, and temperature controls.

dye bleeding

The movement or transference of dye from the fiber to other surfaces. Dye bleeding can occur in wet cleaning and may also be called crocking.

dye blocker

Napthalated phenol compounds that block dye sites on nylon fibers to prevent staining by acid dyes.

dye fleck

1. An imperfection in fabric caused by residual undissolved dye. 2. A defect caused by small sections of undrawn thermoplastic yarn that dye deeper than the drawn yarn.

dye level defects

Uneven application of dyes across a 12 foot width.

dye lot

A quantity of carpet dyed at one time or made from yarn dyed at one time which is consistent in color throughout the fabric.

dye penetration

The ability of dyestuffs to color yarns completely and uniformly from tip to base. Problems with dye penetration are normally associated with print or continuous dyeing techniques. In this situation, yarn ends will be white or much lighter in color at their bases than on their tips. It may be caused by improper pressure on screens during printing, or on too light a dye application during continuous dyeing. Usually samples are required for testing to determine dye penetration.

dye range

A broad term referring to the collection of dye and chemical baths, drying equipment, etc., in a continuous dyeing line.

dye site

An irregular, electrically charged area on the surface of a fiber which has an affinity for dye.

dye spots

Spots found randomly throughout a carpet immediately after carpet installation, that are caused by heavier than normal application of dyes in a fairly localized area. Usually spots that appear after carpet installation are from other sources unrelated to manufacture.

dye streak

Relatively long, narrow variations in color running in a lengthwise direction and usually associated with continuous dyeing. Dye streaks may be caused by defective or partially blocked applicator jets, something rubbing over the carpet during continuous dyeing, or even creases or folds in the carpet during continuous dyeing or rope beck dyeing (length or diagonal streaks).

dye variant fibers

See differential dyeing.


The process of coloring materials’ impregnating fabric with dyestuffs. 1. Solution Dyed - Synthetic yarn which is extruded from a colored solution; the filament is thus impregnated with the pigment. 2. Stock Dyed - Fibers are dyed before spinning. 3. Yarn (or skein) Dyed - Yarn dyed before being fabricated into carpet. 4. Piece or Beck Dyeing - Carpet dyed “in a piece” after tufting but before other finishing processes such as latexing or foaming. 5. Cross Dyeing - Method of dyeing fabrics with dyestuffs which have different affinities for different types of yarns. 6. Space Dyeing - Process whereby colors are “printed” along the length of yarn before it is manufactured into carpet. 7. Continuous Dyeing - The process of dyeing carpet in a continuous production line, rather than piece dyeing separate lots. Most often done on continuous dyeing equipment which flows on dyestuffs, as distinguished from submerging carpet in separate dye becks.

dyeing auxiliaries

Various substances that can be added to the dyebath to aide dyeing. They may be necessary to transfer the dye from the bath to the fiber or they may provide improvements in leveling, penetration, etc. Also called dyeing assistants.


Substances that add color to textiles. They are incorporated into the fiber by chemical reaction, absorption, or dispersion. Dyes differ in their resistance to sunlight, perspiration, washing, gas, alkalies, and other agents; their affinity for different fibers; their reaction to cleaning agents and methods and their solubility and method of application. Various classes and types are listed below.


A highly colored substance capable of permanent physical or chemical attachment to textile fibers; coloration of fibers occurs upon attachment of small quantities. Most dyes are applied from water solutions or dispersions. 1. An individual warp yarn in woven fabric. 2. An individual pile yarn in tufted carpet. 3. A roll end or short length of carpet; or a remnant. Most dyestuffs are applied from water based solutions. 4. The substance which adds color to textiles by absorption into the fiber or by chemical attachment.

Did you know?

A number of carpet problems may not be carpet defects. They can occur as a result of environmental conditions or carpet cleaning problems.