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Carpet Glossary E

edge beading

See seam sealing.


The ability of a strained material to recover its original size and shape immediately after removal of the stress that causes deformation

electrical conductivity

1. A measure of the ease of transporting electric charge from one point to another in an electric field. 2. The reciprocal of resistivity.

electrical finish

A finish designed to increase or maintain electrical resistivity of a textile material

electrical resistivity

The resistance to longitudinal electrical flow through a uniform rod of unit length and unit cross-sectional area.

electrical seaming

A seaming method that uses an electric current to activate a thermoplastic adhesive coated on a specialized seaming tape.


See air conveyance system.

electrostatic flocking

See flocking. The process used for the majority of the flocked commercial carpets. Specially treated fibers are charged by an electrostatic field. When the charged fibers encounter the object to be coated, they are moving vertically at a high speed and they become firmly embedded in the adhesive.

electrostatic propensity

The ability of a textile fabric to produce and accumulate an electrostatic charge within itself and within a body moving across its surface.


The deformation in the direction of load caused by a tensile force. Elongation is measured in units of length (e.g., millimeters, inches) or calculated as a percentage of the original specimen length. Elongation may be measured at any specified load or at the breaking load.

elongation at break

The increase in length when the last component of the specimen breaks.


1. A pattern formed when thick, twisted yarns are used on a ground of lower, lighter yarns to create an engraved appearance. Both yarns are usually the same color. 2. In carpet, the type of pattern formed when heavy twisted tufts are used in a ground of straight yarns to create an engraved appearance. Both the straight and twisted yarns are often of the same color.

embossed carpet

Patterns using high and low pile. Usually a Wilton weave in which the high pile is cut and the low is loop. In Axminster carpet the effect is obtained by using a pull down yarn that shrinks to a lower level with steam.


Pollution discharge from a source.


An ingredient in lotions or hand soaps that makes skin soft or soothed.


The process of dispersing one liquid into another liquid with which it is immiscible; the action of breaking up fats, oils, and other lipids into small particles that remain suspended within a cleaning solution until extraction may be accomplished. The process of dispersing one liquid in an immiscible liquid.


1. A suspension of finely divided liquid droplets in a second liquid, i.e., oil in water or vice versa. 2. Two or more liquids that do not dissolve in each other but are held in suspension, one in the other. 3. A colloidal dispersion of one liquid within another (usually lipids or oils in water) without forming a compound or solution; e.g., milk is animal fat emulsified in water. See emulsification.

emulsion polymerization

A three-phase reaction system consisting of monomer, an aqueous phase containing the initiator, and colloidal particles of polymer. Polymerization takes place in the colloidal phase. The process enables the production of very high molecular weights at increased polymerization rates. Only applicable to addition polymers.

emulsion spinning

The process of spinning synthetic polymers in dispersion form, then heating to coalesce the dispersed particles. Normally a matrix polymer provides support until coalescence is completed.


The percentage that the latex backcoating or adhesive surrounds the yarn bundle underneath the primary backing, expressed as a rough percentage. This is very important in loop pile carpet to prevent excessive fuzzing and pilling of the pile yarn.


1. An individual warp yarn in woven fabric. 2. An individual pile yarn in tufted carpet. 3. A roll end, or short length of carpet; or a remnant. The process of penetrating a bundle of fibers comprising a yarn with latex adhesive. Proper encapsulation prevents fuzzing or pilling. See bundle wrap.

end out

A void caused by a missing warp yarn.


Part of the outer wall of a gram-negative bacteria. It can cause fever, changes in white blood cell counts, increased airway resistance, shock, and even death.

energy absorption

The energy required to break or elongate a fiber to a certain point.


The total energy required to rupture a yarn or cord.

entangled yarns

See compacted yarns.


1. A method of forming a fabric by wrapping and knotting fibers in a web about each other, by mechanical means, or by the use of jets of pressurized water, so as to bond the fibers.


The process of threading each warp yarn on a loom beam through a separate drop wire, heddle, and reed space in preparation for weaving. This process may be done by hand or by a semi-automatic machine.


The sum of the internal energy of a body and the product of its volume multiplied by the pressure.

entry mat

Mats of various sizes and types, usually vinyl backed and with a nylon or olefin face yarn. Entry mats are designed for use outside of entry areas to arrest soil, and thus prevent much of it from entering a structure. Mats used to collect dirt and other materials in the path before walking on carpet or entering a room/house.


The sum of all external conditions affecting the life of an organism.

environmental factors

Conditions other than indoor air contaminants that cause stress, comfort and/or health problems (e.g., humidity extremes, drafts, lack of air circulation noise and overcrowding).

environmental impact

The potential adverse environmental effect of the release of a material into the environment, as specified by the products MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet).

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

A U.S. federal agency with environmental protection regulatory and enforcement authority. Administers Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, FIFRA, RCRA, TSCA, and other federal environmental laws.

environmental toxicity

The hazardous effect that a given compound of chemical has on the environment (soil, water, air) observed during environmental tests on the effects of the substance on aquatic and plant life.


A protein molecule that causes a chemical reaction between two substances and which remains apparently unchanged in the process. Enzymes are produced by living substances. There are six main groups of enzymes. The group we are interested in is that of the isomerases, of which a subgroup known as proteases and lypases break down protein and oil into their basic components. These enzymes are sensitive to pH changes, and chemical reactions.


A large class of complex protein molecules that encourage biochemical reactions (digestion). Amylase and protease enzymes are the type most frequently encountered in the textile cleaning industry, primarily as spotters or deodorants. Enzymes are most effective in neutral environments, at moderate temperatures, and after a dwell time in excess of twenty (20) minutes.


See Environmental Protection Agency.


Widespread outbreak of a disease.


The science that deals with the study of disease in a general population (e.g., Kawasaki Syndrome). Determination of the incidence (rate of occurrence) and distribution of a particular disease (by age, sex, or occupation) may provide information about the causes of the disease.


1. The outer epithelial layer of skin. The epidermis is the nonsensitive, nonvascular layer that covers the dermis. 2. The outer layer of overlapping scales on the surface of wool fiber.


A hard synthetic resin often used in floor finishes, paints, and sealers.

equilibrium moisture content (EMC)

The condition in which the moisture content of a structural material has stabilized in relation to relative humidity and temperature of surrounding air; i.e., no more moisture absorption can occur at the temperature and humidity.


An applied science that investigates the impact of a persons physical environment of their health and comfort (e.g., work equip, room, general areas).


Compound formed by the elimination of water and bonding of an alcohol and an organic acid.


A chemical change on the outside of a smooth floor surface which causes the floor to be pitted or rough, thereby improving the adhesion of a floor finish.

ethyl alcohol

The most common variety of alcohol (ethanol, grain alcohol), used as a solvent in some spotting or cleaning agents.


The process of converting a liquid into a vapor.

evaporation rate

The rate are which a particular material will vaporize (evaporate) when compared to the rate of vaporization of a known material. The evaporation rate can be useful in evaluating the health and fire hazards of a material. The known material may be ethyl ether with a vaporization rate designated at 1.0. Vaporization rates of other solvents or materials are then classified as: 1. Fast evaporating if greater than 3.0. 2. Medium evaporating if 0.8 to 3.0. 3. Slow evaporating, if less than 0.8

exhaust ventilation

Mechanical removal of air from a portion of a building (e.g., piece of equipment, room, or general area).


The process of dye molecules leaving a dye liquor completely and becoming fixed on fiber dye sites.

exothermic polymerization

A chemical reaction that involves the production of heat.


A chemical that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release of pressure, gas and heat, when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, or high temperature.


Being directly subjected to a hazardous chemical in the performance of a task through any route of entry (inhalation, ingestion, skin contact, or absorption, etc.). The Federal Hazard Communication Standard includes both accidental and possible exposures in its definition of exposure.

exposure assessment

Measurement or estimation of the magnitude, frequency, duration, and route of exposure of humans, animals, materials, or ecological components to substances in the environment. The assessment also describes the size and nature of the exposed population.

extended length

The length of the face pile yarn used to make one inch of tufted carpet.

extractor attachment

Auxiliary equipment, such as: wands, tools, etc. Used with hot water extraction equipment.


The process of forcing (pumping) the liquefied raw materials (polymers) that make up fibers through a spinneret to form filaments when cooled and/or dried. The cross section of the fiber is determined by the shape of the spinneret opening.

eye protection

Recommended safety glasses, chemical splash goggles, face shields, etc., to be used when handling a hazardous material.

Did you know?

Different carpet fibers may require different carpet cleaning methods and different cleaning chemistry. Tough synthetic carpet fibers will withstand a wide variety of carpet cleaning methods and cleaning chemistry, but natural carpet fibers can be damaged by improper cleaning.